[Year:2018] [Month:September-October] [Volume:9] [Number:5] [Pages:5] [Pages No:372 - 376]
Aim: The diagnosis of odontogenic tumors and other fibro-osseous lesions could be challenging. Use of routine histological staining procedures like hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) may not aid in providing insight into the nature and character of the hard tissues, thereby require advanced diagnostic aids like immunohistochemistry (IHC), which is technique-sensitive and expensive. Masson's trichrome (MT) stain and modified Gallego's (MG) stain can differentially stain hard tissues, such as tooth, bone, and other pathologic calcifications. The study aims to differentially stain various hard tissue structures present in normal teeth and hard tissue pathologies and compare between the routine stain H&E, MT, and MG stains. Study of oral hard tissues, comparing H&E, MT, and MG stains is the first of its kind according to our knowledge.
Materials and methods: A total of 30 paraffin-embedded tissues were taken from the archives of the Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology including 15 normal hard tissue structures comprising of 5 decalcified sections of teeth, 5 ground sections of teeth and 5 decalcified section of normal bone. Fifteen histopathologically diagnosed cases of hard tissue lesions/odontogenic lesions (odontome 3, cemento-ossifying fibroma 5, cementoblastoma 5, and central ossifying fibroma 2) were taken. Three sections were taken from each tissue block and subjected to H&E, MT, and MG stains.
Results: Slides when stained with MG stain, enamel stains pink, dentine stains light green, cementum stains red, and bone stains dark green. Clinically significant result was obtained in case of modified Gallego's stain (0.001). MG > MT > H&E: 75 > 50 > 45% respectively, in comparison with other two stains. The shade of color differs with the amount of mineralization of the hard tissues. For statistical analysis, chi-square test was employed.
Conclusion: Among H and E, MT, and MG stains, MG stain could be a promising differential stain in hard tissue pathologies and other fibro-osseous lesions with diagnostic dilemmas.
Clinical significance: MG stain helps in diagnosis of ambiguous lesions, detection of origin/nature of lesions, differentiation of aggressive and nonaggressive lesions, thus enabling clinicians to know their biological behavior and plan adequate treatment.