[Year:2018] [Month:March-April] [Volume:9] [Number:2] [Pages:8] [Pages No:137 - 144]
Background: Functionally graded material (FGM) is a smart configuration for designing composite materials to improve their long-term endurance. The main characteristic of an FGM is the gradual variation in composition and microstructure across its dimensions, resulting in enhanced properties. This approach has been applied in several fields of thermal barrier coatings, power industry, biomechanical, automotive, aerospace, mechanical, civil, nuclear, aeronautic, and naval engineering.
Aim: This article is intended to provide an overview of the FGMs, their application in dentistry, and the employment of the concept on the mechanical performance of dental restorative systems.
Results: A thorough review of FGM dental applications has found that several researchers have been able to develop different configurations based on FGM concept to avoid failures, such as infrastructure, abutment failures in implantology, and prosthodontics. These strategies result in a gradual transition between dissimilar materials decreasing residual stresses generated during fabrication and function.
Conclusion: Of late, multiple parallel researches based on the FGM concept are being carried out on dental implants coated with hydroxyapatite (HA), zirconia (Zr), and its oxides to improve osseointegration and reduce stress behavior. This review attempts to present a thorough understanding of FGMs, their characterization, manufacturing techniques and technology, and their dental applications.
Clinical significance: Throughout the past decade, the use of endosteal dental implants as a treatment modality of choice in oral rehabilitation cases has increased. Unfortunately, no artificial implants have biomechanical properties equivalent to that of the surrounding bone. Based on FGM concept, a graded composition between titanium and HA/Zr on the implant surface has now been achieved that has resulted in improved mechanical behavior and osseointegration.