World Journal of Dentistry

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2017 | January-February | Volume 8 | Issue 1

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Matheus Coelho Bandeca, Milton C Kuga, Suellen L Lima, Wilfredo Escalante-Otárola, Gabriela Castro-Núñez, KCF Jordão-Basso

Treatment Protocol for Dentin Hypersensitivity

[Year:2017] [Month:January-February] [Volume:8] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:1 - 4]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1401  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Escalante-Otárola W, Castro-Núñez G, Jordão-Basso KCF, Lima SL, Kuga MC, Bandeca MC. Treatment Protocol for Dentin Hypersensitivity. World J Dent 2017;8(1):1-4.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Matheus Coelho Bandeca, Milton C Kuga, Keren CF Jordão-Basso, Mateus R Tonetto, Suellen L Lima, Lorena DMA Garrido, Natália G Kalatzis-Sousa, Andrea AR Dantas, Renato DT Leonardo

Influence of the Number of Bleaching Sessions on Fracture Resistance and Dentin Microhardness of Endodontically Treated Teeth

[Year:2017] [Month:January-February] [Volume:8] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:5 - 9]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1402  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objectives

To evaluate the effects of number of bleaching sessions on fracture resistance and dentin microhardness in endodontically treated teeth using 15% hydrogen peroxide with titanium dioxide nanoparticles (15HPTiO2) associated to light emitting diode (LED)—laser system.

Materials and methods

Forty human incisors were endodontically treated and divided according to the number of bleaching sessions (n = 10, each group): G1 — no treatment G2 — one; G3 — two; and G4 — three sessions. The 15HPTiO2 was applied within the pulp chamber and on the buccal surface, then photoactivated using LED—laser. All experimental specimens were restored with ionomer glass cement between each session and in the final treatment. Specimens were then subjected to the fracture resistance test (kN), using an electromechanical machine. To the dentin microhardness evaluation, 40 crown extracted endodontically treated human teeth were longitudinally sectioned, divided into groups as previously described (n = 10), and submitted to similar bleaching protocol. Dentin microhardness was evaluated before and after the final dental bleaching session in each group using Knoop indentator. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey tests (p = 0.05).

Results

The fracture resistance values were similar among all groups (p > 0.05). The number of dental bleaching sessions had a negative influence on the microhardness dentin, because G4 > G3 > G2 > G1 (p < 0.05).

Conclusion

The number of bleaching sessions using 15% hydrogen peroxide with titanium dioxide nanoparticles associated to LED—laser system had no influence on the fracture resistance of the endodontically treated teeth crowns, but promoted a reduction in dentin microhardness.

How to cite this article

Garrido LDMA, Kuga MC, Kalatzis- Sousa NG, Dantas AAR, Tonetto MR, Leonardo RDT, Jordão- Basso KCF, Lima SL, Borges AH, Bandeca MC. Influence of the Number of Bleaching Sessions on Fracture Resistance and Dentin Microhardness of Endodontically Treated Teeth. World J Dent 2017;8(1):5-9.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

G Rajesh, Ravi Priyanka, Ashwini Rao, Shenoy Ramya, Pai BH Mithun

Compliance with Statutory Tobacco Guidelines in and around Schools in Mangaluru, India: An Observational Study

[Year:2017] [Month:January-February] [Volume:8] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:10 - 13]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1403  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Context

Tobacco is the foremost cause of preventable death and disease in the world today, and India is the second largest consumer of tobacco products in the world. The Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA) promulgated in 2003 by the Government of India, not only mandates ban on the sale of tobacco within a 100-yard radius around schools, but also provides guidelines for tobacco-free schools.

Aim

To determine if the provisions of the COTPA are being complied with, in Mangaluru, India.

Materials and methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted among 30 randomly selected schools in Mangaluru, India. Information was collected regarding sale of tobacco at vendor locations within 100-yard radius of these schools. An interview schedule was administered to the representative of the school, pertaining to the guidelines for tobacco-free schools.

Statistical analysis used

The data were coded and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11.5. The level of statistical significance was kept at p < 0.05.

Results

There were 48 shops located within 100-yard radius of the schools, out of which 46 (95.8%) sold single cigarettes but only one shop displayed surrogate advertisement. Among the 30 schools surveyed, only 3 (10%) displayed signages prohibiting smoking. Although the guidelines for tobacco-free schools explicitly state that all schools must have a copy of the COTPA, only 3 (10.0%) schools maintained a copy.

Conclusion

This study showed that there was a widespread violation of Section 6 of the COTPA 2003 in Mangaluru, India.

How to cite this article

Priyanka R, Rao A, Rajesh G, Ramya S, Mithun PBH. Compliance with Statutory Tobacco Guidelines in and around Schools in Mangaluru, India: An Observational Study. World J Dent 2017;8(1):10-13.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Almas Binnal, Gururaghavendran Rajesh

Factors determining Radiation Protection Practices among Indian General Dental Practitioners: An Explorative Study

[Year:2017] [Month:January-February] [Volume:8] [Number:1] [Pages:7] [Pages No:14 - 20]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1404  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Radiation exposure encountered in dentistry is minimal; however, their harmful effects cannot be ruled out. Though there are several guidelines established to minimize exposure to X-rays in dentistry, earlier studies have reported that practitioners are not entirely compliant with the same. There is, therefore, a definite need to identify factors that influence compliance with radiation protection practices among general dental practitioners (GDPs).

Objective

The objective is to assess various factors influencing radiation protection practices among Indian GDPs.

Materials and methods

A cross-sectional study design using a pretested, self-administered, structured questionnaire comprising of 37 items was employed in the present study. Information pertaining to demographics and radiation protection practices among GDPs was collected.

Results

A total of 66.7 and 49.4% did not follow position and distance rule respectively; overall, 88.5 and 94.3% did not use lead apron and thyroid collar respectively, for their patients. It was observed that 60.9% did not adjust exposure parameters according to tooth position; a total of 94.2% did not use personal dosimeters, while 63.2% disposed radiographic waste in common drain. Correlation analysis revealed significant association of awareness about governing bodies with educational course, distance rule with years of practice, personal dosimeter usage with gender, and other patients’ exposure to radiation with type of practice of the participants (p < 0.05).

Conclusion

The present study revealed poor radiation protection practices among GDPs. Low compliance with personnel- and patient-related protection measures was observed. A majority of the respondents were not familiar with radiation protection guidelines. Correlation analysis revealed important demographics that were influencing radiation protection practices among the respondents. The present study highlights crucial policy implications to ensure greater compliance with appropriate radiation protection guidelines among GDPs in India.

How to cite this article

Binnal A, Rajesh G, Ahmed J, Denny C. Factors determining Radiation Protection Practices among Indian General Dental Practitioners: An Explorative Study. World J Dent 2017;8(1):14-20.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Khalil Assiri

Exercise-induced Hypoalgesia Profiles for Pain Prediction in the Trigeminal System

[Year:2017] [Month:January-February] [Volume:8] [Number:1] [Pages:7] [Pages No:21 - 27]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1405  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

This study aimed to evaluate the predictivity of exerciseinduced hypoalgesia (EIH) profile on pain severity produced by nerve injury in an animal model.

Materials and methods

A total of 51 rats were divided according to the EIH model, which was evaluated by the percentage of withdrawal actions of 30 repetitive physical stimuli on the hind paw of the rat before and after 3 minutes of exercise on a treadmill, into high and low EIH. Left infraorbital nerve injury was then done on rats from high and low EIH groups. Pain assays as mechanical allodynia and mechanical hyperalgesia were evaluated in the ipsilateral and unaffected whisker pad before and 3, 10, and 17 days after the surgery.

Results

Rats that were categorized as low EIH showed increased hypersensitivity and demonstrated significantly severe mechanical hyperalgesia in ipsilateral side 10 and 17 days after the surgery compared with the high EIH rats.

Conclusion

The authors concluded that the pinprick behavioral assay (mechanical hyperalgesia) was able to predict chronic pain development in the area of the trigeminal nerve distribution using EIH profile measured at the hind paw of the rat.

How to cite this article

Assiri K. Exercise-induced Hypoalgesia Profiles for Pain Prediction in the Trigeminal System. World J Dent 2017;8(1):21-27.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Ravindra Kotian, P Prasad Rao, Prashanthi Madhyastha, KL Shobha, BS Satish Rao

Cytocompatibility by MTT Assay and Platelet Adhesion of Ti and Ti-6Al-4V coated with Hydroxyapatite in different Plasma Gas Atmospheres

[Year:2017] [Month:January-February] [Volume:8] [Number:1] [Pages:9] [Pages No:28 - 36]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1406  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

This study was performed to evaluate the biocompatibility of pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V metals coated with hydroxyapatite (HA) by plasma spray using different plasma gas atmospheres.

Materials and methods

The cell viabilities for each HA-coated sample in an atmosphere of argon, argon—hydrogen, nitrogen, and nitrogen—hydrogen were studied using MTT assay and platelet adhesion test.

Results

The mean cell viabilities by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay of samples coated with HA in argon—hydrogen plasma atmosphere showed maximum cell viability at different time intervals compared with other coating atmospheres of argon—hydrogen, nitrogen, and nitrogen—hydrogen. A statistically significant value of cell viability (p < 0.001) was observed between and within the groups of argon, argon—hydrogen, nitrogen, and nitrogen—hydrogen plasma gas atmosphere. The platelet adhesion study showed agglomerates of platelet cells in some isolated regions of HA for all atmospheres.

Significance

The results obtained in this study can serve as a guide for the development of new Ti-based HA-coated implants in different plasma gas atmospheres.

How to cite this article

Kotian R, Rao PP, Madhyastha P, Shobha KL, Rao BSS, Ginjupalli K. Cytocompatibility by MTT Assay and Platelet Adhesion of Ti and Ti-6Al-4V coated with Hydroxyapatite in different Plasma Gas Atmospheres. World J Dent 2017;8(1):28-36.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Sree Theja Upadhyay, Tina Puthen Purayil

Comparative evaluation of Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Teeth Obturated with Pozzolan-based MTA Sealer and Epoxy Resin-based Sealer: An in vitro Study

[Year:2017] [Month:January-February] [Volume:8] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:37 - 40]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1407  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

To evaluate and compare the effect of epoxy resin-based sealer and a pozzolan-based mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) sealer on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth.

Materials and methods

Thirty single-rooted mandibular premolars were decoronated to a standardized root length of 15 mm. ProTaper rotary files up to a master apical file size of F3 were used for cleaning and shaping the root canals followed by 2.5% sodium hypochlorite irrigation. The teeth were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10 each), and the obturation was completed using gutta-percha with Endoseal MTA (group I) and AH Plus (group II) as root canal sealers. Group III served as control (instrumented and unfilled). Each specimen was then subjected to fracture testing by using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/minute until fracture. The force required to fracture each specimen was recorded and the data were subjected to statistical analysis using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by pairwise comparison using post hoc Games-Howell test (p < 0.05).

Results

The fracture resistance of groups I and II were significantly higher than those of group III. No significant difference in the fracture resistance was observed between group I (Endoseal MTA) and group II (AH Plus) groups.

Conclusion

It can be concluded that the new root canal sealer, Endoseal MTA, is able to reinforce the tooth against fracture as good as AH Plus.

Clinical significance

Endoseal MTA is a sealer for the reinforcement of endodontically treated teeth.

How to cite this article

Upadhyay ST, Purayil TP, Ginjupalli K. Comparative evaluation of Fracture Resistance of EndodonticallyTreated Teeth Obturated with Pozzolan-based MTA Sealer and Epoxy Resin-based Sealer: An in vitro Study. World J Dent 2017;8(1):37-40.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Matheus Coelho Bandéca, Milton C Kuga, Keren CF Jordão-Basso, Mateus R Tonetto, Arturo J Aranda-Garcia, Fernando A Vázquez-Garcia, Suellen NL Lima, Jardel C do Carmo Monteiro

Persistence of Residues after Endodontic Retreatment related to the Obturation Technique and to the Solvent

[Year:2017] [Month:January-February] [Volume:8] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:41 - 44]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1408  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objective

To quantify the persistence of residues after endodontic retreatment related to the root canal obturation technique (lateral compaction or single cone) previously performed and the solvent used (xylol or Endosolv-R) in the cervical and root apical segment using digital radiograph.

Materials and methods

Forty root canals were prepared using the F2 instrument and filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus, 20 canals using #25 point by lateral compaction and the other 20 using F2 point by single cone. The root canals were transversely sectioned, and two segments (cervical and apical) were obtained. Radiographs were taken from the segment in buccolingual and mesiodistal direction, as well as the area that was originally filled with the root canal obturation was measured using ImageJ. After the specimens were set on special devices, the obturations were removed using the rotary system and divided into four groups (n = 10): G1 — lateral compaction and xylol; G2 — lateral compaction and Endosolv-R; G3 — single cone and xylol; and G4 — single cone and Endosolv-R. A new radiograph was taken and the area occupied by residues was measured. The persistence of residues was obtained from the obturation remaining in the root canal in percentage. The data were analyzed using Kruskal—Wallis test (p = 0.05).

Results

There was no difference among the examined groups, regardless of the radicular segment or the radiograph direction (p > 0.05).

Conclusion

The endodontic retreatment using xylol or Endosolv-R in the obturations previously performed by lateral compaction or single cone technique presented similar persistence of residues in the root canal, regardless of the radicular segment.

How to cite this article

Aranda-Garcia AJ, Kuga MC, Vázquez-Garcia FA, Tonetto MR, Bandeca MC, Lima SNL, Freitas J, Borges AH, Jordão-Basso KCF, do Carmo Monteiro JC. Persistence of Residues after Endodontic Retreatment related to the Obturation Technique and to the Solvent. World J Dent 2017;8(1):41-44.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Bharat Choudhary, Atul Jain, Kanchan Bhadoria, Nakul Patidar

Comparison of Dentinal Defects induced by Hand Files, Multiple, and Single Rotary Files: A Stereomicroscopic Study

[Year:2017] [Month:January-February] [Volume:8] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:45 - 48]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1409  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

This study was carried out to compare the dentinal defects induced by single rotary file system, multiple rotary file system, and hand files.

Materials and methods

Sixty single-rooted premolars were selected based on predetermined criteria. They were divided into three groups: Group I (hand K files), group II (Hero Shaper), and group III (One Shape). Biomechanical preparation was carried out as per the manufacturer's instructions. Each specimen was sectioned horizontally and divided into apical, middle, and coronal sections. These sections were visualized under stereomicroscope to evaluate the dentinal defects using predetermined criteria.

Results

Roots prepared with Hero Shaper showed more number of defects than One Shape, whereas in roots prepared with hand files lowest percentage of dentinal defects were present. There was statistically significant difference between the Hero Shaper group and the One Shape group (p < 0.05).

Conclusion

All rotary files induce defects in root dentin, whereas the hand instruments induce minimal defects.

Clinical significance

With single rotary file system, preparation time is reduced and it is easier for patients to accept the treatment. Moreover, the potential of root fracture is reduced.

How to cite this article

Jain A, Bhadoria K, Choudhary B, Patidar N. Comparison of Dentinal Defects induced by Hand Files, Multiple, and Single Rotary Files: A Stereomicroscopic Study. World J Dent 2017;8(1):45-48.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Meera Thinakaran, S Mohanavalli, G Sree V Bala

Evaluation of Influencing Factors and commonly Involving Side in Maxillofacial Injuries in Road Traffic Accidents by Motorized Two Wheelers: A Cross-sectional Study

[Year:2017] [Month:January-February] [Volume:8] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:49 - 54]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1410  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Trauma remains to be a leading cause of maxillofacial injury globally. Motorized two wheelers (MTWs) are the main cause of (73%) maxillofacial injuries in the road traffic accidents; in several studies, the right side of maxillofacial injuries was reported as the common side of injury than left side. In our previous study, the percentage of the right side injuries was higher than the left side.

Aim

The aim of this study is to evaluate the influencing factors of the maxillofacial injury by MTWs and to find the association between the side maxillofacial injuries and the handedness of drivers.

Materials and methods

Clusters sampling method was used; 20 clusters were selected in Chennai. Motorized twowheeler drivers were selected. Data collected by prepared questionnaires’ were statistically analyzed. Data included the demographic details, type of vehicle, engine capacity, average driving speed, years of driving, regular usage of the helmet, type, mode and frequency of accident, management, influence of alcohol, and use of the helmet at the time of injury. The side of the facial injury and handedness of drivers were recorded.

Results

From the total of 721 participants, 75.7% were males, 24.3% were females; 46.74% were in the age of 18 to 25; mean age is 29.45. Bikes were 55.9%, scooter 38.2%, moped 8.3%; 59.9% are geared; 50.5% were 80 to 100 cc vehicles types and 37% were 110 to 150 cc types; 62% of male's average speed is 80 km/hour; 53% of female's average speed is less than 40 km/hour. Only 18.06% had used at the time of injury. 39.4% of females had accidents, males had 59.3% (p < 0.0001). Two-wheeler vs two-wheeler accidents were 24.8%; two-wheeler vs four wheeler were 19%; by pedestrians crossing 18.7%; by animal crossing was 16.5%; skid two wheeler 20%. A total of 30.02% were under the influence of alcohol. Right-side injuries were 44.5%; left side 25.9% (p < 0.0001), while 96.9% were right-handers.

Conclusion

Right-side injuries were common in MTW skid and fall. Speed, type of vehicle, handedness, influence of alcohol, use of helmet, mode of injury, all are the determining factors for pattern and severity of injury. Helmet usage would definitely minimize the head injury to some extent.

How to cite this article

Mohanavalli S, Thinakaran M, Bala GSV. Evaluation of Influencing Factors and commonly Involving Side in Maxillofacial Injuries in Road Traffic Accidents by Motorized Two Wheelers: A Cross-sectional Study. World J Dent 2017;8(1):49-54.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Milton C Kuga, Mateus R Tonetto, Rafael DS Caetano, Paulo HDS Castro, Ana C Soares

Smoking influences the Occurrence of Radiodermatitis in Head and Neck-irradiated Patients

[Year:2017] [Month:January-February] [Volume:8] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:55 - 58]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1411  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of radiodermatitis in patients undergoing radiotherapy in the head and neck.

Materials and methods

Thirty-eight patients were evaluated 6 months after the end of radiotherapy to treat cancer in the head and neck region. The radiodermatitis was clinically classified as absent, acute, or chronic. Data, such as age, sex, race/ color, drinking and smoking habits, number of radiotherapy sessions, and conduction of adjuvant chemotherapy were also obtained. Fisher's exact test and Pearson's test were used to analyze the correlation of the independent variables and the presence of radiodermatitis.

Results

The mean age of the patients was 59.71 (± 10.67), and 29 (76.3%) were men, 24 (63.2%) were non-white race/ color, 28 (63.7%) were alcohol consumers, and 33 (86.8%) were smokers. The average number of radiotherapy sessions was 37.26 (± 7.66); 30 (78.9%) patients underwent chemotherapy; and 26 (68.4%) had chronic radiodermatitis. The only variable statistically related to the occurrence of radiodermatitis in the patients was smoking.

Conclusion

Radiodermatite was quite prevalent among the studied patients and was directly related to the smoking habit.

How to cite this article

Caetano RDS, Volpato LER, Castro PHDS, Borba AM, Aranha AMF, Kuga MC, Tonetto MR, Soares AC, Bandeca MC, Borges ÁH. Smoking influences the Occurrence of Radiodermatitis in Head and Neck-irradiated Patients. World J Dent 2017;8(1):55-58.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Joji Markose, Shruthi Eshwar, K Rekha, S Naganandini

Problem-based Learning vs Lectures—Comparison of Academic Performances among Dental Undergraduates in India: A Pilot Study

[Year:2017] [Month:January-February] [Volume:8] [Number:1] [Pages:8] [Pages No:59 - 66]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1412  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Effective teaching is critical for student learning, especially in professional field, such as dentistry. To cope with the dynamic state of society, the changing pattern of diseases, a clear understanding of the links between basic sciences, technology, and health care systems are crucial. Future health care provider's education system should encourage the development of learning characteristics, such as critical thinking and problem-solving. Problem-based learning (PBL) is one such method.

Aims and objectives

To evaluate the efficacy of PBL vs lecture method of teaching among the final-year dental undergraduates.

Materials and methods

A comparative study with 38 finalyear dental students, 19 students in PBL and 19 students in lecture groups were undertaken. The PBL group was further divided into three smaller groups. Both the groups were given a topic from the undergraduate curriculum of Public Health Dentistry prescribed by Dental Council India (DCI) and were assessed for their academic performances through an internal assessment examination.

Results

Both the groups consisted of higher number of females. Mean marks obtained by PBL group was 6.63 ± 1.80, which was significantly higher as compared with the lecture group which was 4.84 ± 1.17 (p = 0.001**).

Conclusion

Students in PBL group showed better academic performance as compared with students in the lecture group.

How to cite this article

Rekha K, Naganandini S, Eshwar S, Manvi S, Markose J. Problem-based Learning vs Lectures— Comparison of Academic Performances among Dental Undergraduates in India: A Pilot Study. World J Dent 2017; 8(1):59-66.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Vini Rajeev, Rajeev Arunachalam

Communicative and Psychologic Management Protocol for Aggressive Periodontitis

[Year:2017] [Month:January-February] [Volume:8] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:67 - 70]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1413  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Wakefulness about periodontal disease as of today is more than ever before. In spite of advancements in periodontal therapy, limitations do occur. Aggressive periodontitis being the most intricate as the etiopathogenesis is not clearly understood. Effective management of the disease is challenging during the advanced stages of the disease, and with the current therapeutic choices, it seems to be rather incomplete. Coping the patient to the situation is perhaps the least acknowledged and the most undervalued aspect in generalized aggressive periodontitis. As depression/stress influences the immune system and also alters the behavioral habits, it is extremely important to psychologically prepare the patient. Referral to appropriate professional for assistance and counselling should be included in the protocol for periodontal management. Adjustment, adaptation, and confrontation strategies need to be overlooked when preparing the patient. The quality of dentist—patient communication is a key determining factor in patient satisfaction, participation, and compliance with therapeutic planning. This paper aims to think through ways in which communication and incorporation of counselling as part of treatment protocol could improve the experience for the patient and allow better treatment by the team. Henceforth, psychotherapy promotes active participation of the patient rather than a passive receiver of the therapy.

How to cite this article

Arunachalam R, Rajeev V. Communicative and Psychologic Management Protocol for Aggressive Periodontitis. World J Dent 2017;8(1):67-70.

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