World Journal of Dentistry

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2014 | April-June | Volume 5 | Issue 2

EDITORIAL

Shrikant Patel, Rushabh Dagali

Nanotechnology: A double-edged sword

[Year:2014] [Month:April-June] [Volume:5] [Number:2] [Pages:1] [Pages No:0 - 0]

   DOI: 10.5005/wjoud-5-2-v  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Hossam A Eid, Khalid M Abdelaziz, Refaat A Eid

Effect of Bioconditioning on Surface Characteristics of Periodontally-affected Roots of Diabetic Patients

[Year:2014] [Month:April-June] [Volume:5] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:81 - 86]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1264  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objective

Advanced glycosylated end products (AGEs) in type II diabetic patients are usually precipitated on the periodontallyaffected root surfaces. The presence of periodontopathic microbes, at the same time, may also add a negative impact on the prognosis of the regenerative periodontal surgery. This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the effect of chemical conditioning on surface characteristics of periodontally-affected roots of diabetic patients.

Methods

Three groups (n = 25) of freshly-extracted teeth were collected from the outpatient clinics, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University. In group 1, teeth were collected from healthy individuals for orthodontic purpose. Teeth of group 2 were collected from healthy patients with chronic periodontitis, while those of group 3 were collected from diabetic patients with chronic periodontitis. Roots of the collected teeth were examined using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) before and after mechanical surface planning and chemical treatment using normal saline, EDTA gel, Tetracycline HCL (TC) or citric acid (CA) each for 4 minutes (n = 5 from each group).

Results

Interpretation of SEM images revealed undesirable etching effect of the chemicals used on the surfaces of healthy roots. Although EDTA showed an effective cleanse of the smear debris, it seemed to have no power on surface cuticles existed on roots of diabetic individuals. Tetracycline HCl provided acceptable conditioning of periodontally-affected root surfaces. Citric acid showed a powerful removal of both smear debris and cuticle layers off the periodontally-affected roots of diabetic individuals.

Conclusion

Topical application of EDTA, TC or CA shows sensible effect on the periodontally affected root surfaces. However, each of these chemicals exhibits different conditioning power. Citric acid is a promising agent to biomodify the periodontally-affected root surfaces of diabetic patients.

Clinical relevance

Citric acid is an acceptable biomodifier for the periodontally-affected root surfaces. This approach may improve the prognosis of periodontal therapies especially in type II diabetic patients.

How to cite this article

Abdelaziz KM, Eid HA, Eid RA. Effect of Bioconditioning on Surface Characteristics of Periodontally- affected Roots of Diabetic Patients. World J Dent 2014;5(2):81-86.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Urvashi Bhanwal, Karthik Jagdish, Veena Pai, Yashwanth

Effect of Different Base Materials and Techniques on Microleakage in Class II Composite Open Sandwich Restorations: An in vitro Study

[Year:2014] [Month:April-June] [Volume:5] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:87 - 91]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1265  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aims

This study was performed to compare microleakage in class II composite restorations with flowable composites and dual cure composite resin as intermediate material and also to evaluate the effect of delayed light polymerization of dual cure composite base on microleakage.

Materials and methods

Class II box cavities were made with air water spray and divided into four groups. Group 1 was restored without base, group II with flowable composite base, group III with a dual cure composite base which was immediately cured and group IV with 60 seconds delayed cure, dual cure composite base. Remaining cavity was restored with composite resin Specimens were immersed in methylene blue dye after thermocycling and sectioned through mesiodistal center of tooth and observed for leakage pattern. Microleakage was evaluated using dye penetration with methylene blue. Microleakage pattern was observed under a stereomicroscope.

Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test were used for statistical analysis.

Results

Results of the study showed that application of a composite resin base below a class II composite restoration significantly decreased microleakage as compared to restorations without a base. The least and comparable microleakage scores were seen in groups with flowable composite and dual cure composite (delayed cure) as a base, followed by dual cure composite which was immediately cured.

How to cite this article

Bhanwal U, Nadig RR, Jagdish K, Pai V, Yashwanth. Effect of Different Base Materials and Techniques on Microleakage in Class II Composite Open Sandwich Restorations: An in vitro Study. World J Dent 2014;5(2):87-91.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Susan Thomas, Jitender Solanki, Geetika Arora, Rinki Hans, Rushabh J Dagli

Prevalence of Dental Caries among Prisoners of Central Jail, Jodhpur City, Rajasthan, India

[Year:2014] [Month:April-June] [Volume:5] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:92 - 97]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1266  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

This study had twin objective first to determine the prevalence of dental caries and second to assess the correlation of duration of imprisonment, adverse habits and duration of adverse habits with dental caries status of prisoners in Central Jail, Jodhpur city, Rajasthan.

Materials and methods

This cross-sectional study was carried out on 131 male prisoners of Central Jail, Jodhpur city. A pre-designed questionnaire on general information, Tobacco consumption (frequency and duration of intake of Tobacco) and duration of imprisonment was used for the collection of data. The dental caries status was recorded using DMFT index (Henry T Klein, Knutson JW and Carole D Palmer; 1938).

Results

The total DMFT score was 180 and the average DMFT was 1.37 for the total prison population. A significant association was found between adverse habits and different age groups (χ2 = 16.77, p = 0.033) and between duration of adverse habits and different age groups of prisoners (χ2 = 16.58, p -value = 0.034). Significant correlation was found between adverse habit and duration of adverse habit (p < 0.05) in subjects having dental caries.

Conclusion

Though the prevalence of dental caries was so high, treatment for the same was not available due to lack of a dental unit in the jail. This highlights the urgent need of dental services in Central jail of Jodhpur city.

How to cite this article

Hans R, Thomas S, Dagli RJ, Solanki J, Arora G. Prevalence of Dental Caries among Prisoners of Central Jail, Jodhpur City, Rajasthan, India. World J Dent 2014;5(2):92-97.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

K Kiran, Swati Dwivedi, Satyaki Arora, Deepa Singal, Varun Nikhra, Neeraj Chandra

Audio-Visual Aid: An Effective Means to improve Parental Awareness toward Habits and Malocclusion Prevention in Children

[Year:2014] [Month:April-June] [Volume:5] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:98 - 101]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1267  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Malocclusion is a very prevalent disorder of children. These disorders are frequently the result of deleterious oral habits. These disorders and their etiology are very difficult to explain to the parent, but the advent of audio-visual aids has solved this dilemma for the clinician. They allow the clinician to make the parents understand problems and also to compare with normal individuals.

Aim

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the awareness of parent toward malocclusion and the efficiency of audio-visual aid in improving parent awareness and compliance toward treatment.

Materials and methods

A sample size of 100 was estimated which were selected randomly from patients coming to the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, IDS Bareilly. An audio-visual aid was prepared describing the oral habits and their associated malocclusions. A self-prepared questionnaire was presented to the parent before and after the audio-visual aid was shown to them. Their awareness and change in attitude was recorded.

Results

There was statistically significant (p ≤ 0.001) improvement in the knowledge and attitude toward treatment after audio-visual aids were used.

Conclusion

Audio-visual aid is effective in improving awareness toward malocclusion caused due to oral habits.

How to cite this article

Chandra S, Singal D, Arora S, Dwivedi S, Kiran K, Nikhra V, Chandra N. Audio-Visual Aid: An Effective Means to Improve Parental Awareness toward Habits and Malocclusion Prevention in Children. World J Dent 2014;5(2):98-101.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Ahmad Moghareh Abed, Yasaman Mansouri

Clinical Application of Er:YAG Laser and Cryosurgery in Gingival Depigmentation

[Year:2014] [Month:April-June] [Volume:5] [Number:2] [Pages:7] [Pages No:102 - 108]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1268  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background

Gingival melanin pigmentation often occurs as the result of abnormal deposition of melanin. Melanin pigmentation is completely benign and presents no medical problem. However, patients complain the esthetic problem as ‘Black Gum’. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of depigmentation by Er:YAG laser and cryosurgery.

Materials and methods

This study included 20 patients with gingival pigmentation of maxillary incisors, aged 15 to 44 years. Excluding criteria were smoking, systemic disease and pregnancy. Patients treated randomized split mouth, with Er:YAG laser (Pd: 120 mj, RR:12 Hz) along with water spraying of half of maxillary gingivae and on the opposite side cryosurgery was done under topical anesthesia. Patients were followed up at 1, 2, 4 weeks and 3, 6, 12 months after treatment.

Results

Healing was uneventful follow-up period for 6 to 12 months showed no repigmentation in none of them. Slight erythema was observed. No postoperative swelling, hemorrhage, pain, infection were reported.

Conclusion

Depigmentation of gingival melanin hyperpigmentation by cryosurgery and Er: YAG laser radiations were found to be an effective procedures. Postoperative patient's satisfaction were impressive.

How to cite this article

Farahmand A, Moghareh Abed A, Mansouri Y. Clinical Application of Er: YAG Laser and Cryosurgery in Gingival Depigmentation. World J Dent 2014;5(2):102-108.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

AO Olaleye

Gender Distribution of Amalgam Restoration and Treatment Pattern in Regular Attendees of a Teaching Hospital in Nigeria

[Year:2014] [Month:April-June] [Volume:5] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:109 - 112]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1269  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background

Amalgam restoration has been the main procedure carried out over the last two centuries in spite of going through 2 major wars by those opposed to amalgam; however, it has been known that several factors affect it from the stage of titration, packing and finishing of the material but studies on the effect of gender on the treatment and distribution pattern are very scarce.

Materials and methods

This is a 12 years cross-sectional longitudinal retrospective study of dental records of patients who had attended the Dental Centre of University College Hospital, Ibadan, a Teaching Hospital located in the South West of Nigeria, regularly for a minimum period of 5 years.

Results

A total of 2,094 restorations were found to meet the criteria with males accounting for 691 (33%) and females 1403 (67%). When distributed into classes of restoration, females had more class I, II and V restorations placed (69.8%, 62.7%, 63.6%) more than males (30.2%, 37.3%, 36.4%) respectively. Females also had more primary placements and replacement done for all the classes of restorations.

Conclusion

More female patients attended the conservative dentistry clinic regularly more than their male counterparts and more females had higher number of restorations placed, however, there is a reduced female:male ratio in the subgroup of class II amalgam restorations.

It was observed that the most frequent reason given in replacement of restorations was fractured amalgam restorations.

How to cite this article

Olaleye AO. Gender Distribution of Amalgam Restoration and Treatment Pattern in Regular Attendees of a Teaching Hospital in Nigeria. World J Dent 2014; 5(2):109-112.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Roopak Bose Carlos, Suman Makam, Vamsi Kalyan Yaragonda, H Murali, Anukriti Tyagi, Rajani Rose

A Comparative in vitro Evaluation of Vertical Root Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Teeth using Different Obturating Materials

[Year:2014] [Month:April-June] [Volume:5] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:113 - 117]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1270  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

To compare the vertical root fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth obturated using different obturating materials.

Materials and methods

Decoronated roots of 75 single canal lower second premolar teeth were divided randomly into 5 groups. The first group (Group I) served as a negative control. The remaining four Groups were cleaned and shaped using ProTaper Endodontic rotary files and obturated with guttapercha + TubliSeal EWT sealer (Group II), ThermaFil + AH Plus sealer (Group III), RealSeal + RealSeal sealer (Group IV) and GuttaFlow obturating system (Group V). The roots were then embedded in acrylic resin blocks and subjected to vertical load until fracture with a spreader in a universal testing machine and the forces were recorded.

Results

Fracture resistance of group I > group IV > group V > group III > group II, which were statistically significant.

Conclusion

Obturation of roots with resin based obturation material—RealSeal had increased VRF resistance compared to the gutta-percha obturation systems.

Clinical significance

Obturation of the root canals with resin based obturation system—Resilon reinforces the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth and contributes to the overall success of the endodontic treatment.

How to cite this article

Carlos RB, Makam S, Yaragonda VK, Murali H, Tyagi A, Rose R. A Comparative in vitro Evaluation of Vertical Root Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Teeth using Different Obturating Materials. World J Dent 2014;5(2):113-117.

Acronyms and abbreviations

VRF: Vertical root fracture; ANOVA: Analysis of variance.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Anupam Agarwal, Shalu Mahajan, Santosh Verma

Digital Single Lens Reflex Photography in Clinical Orthodontics: Revolution or Evolution

[Year:2014] [Month:April-June] [Volume:5] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:118 - 123]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1271  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Agarwal A, Mahajan S, Verma S. Digital Single Lens Reflex Photography in Clinical Orthodontics: Revolution or Evolution. World J Dent 2014;5(2):118-123.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Srinidhi Surya Raghavendra, Bandu Devrao Napte

Evaluation of the Action of Chelating Agents on the Microhardness of Superficial Layer of Root Canal Lumen Dentin

[Year:2014] [Month:April-June] [Volume:5] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:124 - 128]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1272  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim

To evaluate the effect of different chelating agents on the microhardness of the superficial dentin layer of the root canal lumen.

Materials and methods

Forty-two extracted single rooted teeth were instrumented, and the roots were longitudinally sectioned in a buccolingual direction to expose the entire canal extension. The specimens were randomly distributed in four groups according to the final irrigation: Glyde File Prep (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), RC Help (Prime Dental Pvt. Ltd, Mumbai, India), Endo Prep RC (Stedman Anabond, Chennai, India), Dolo Endogel (Prevest Denpro Ltd, Jammu, India). A standardized volume of 50 ml of each chelating agent was used for 5 minutes. Dentin microhardness was measured with a Knoop indenter under a 50 gm load and a 15 seconds dwell time. Data was analyzed statistically by one-way analysis of variance ANOVA and post hoc multiple-comparison test at 5% significance level.

Results

Statistically significant difference was detected among the chelating agents by one-way ANOVA. Glyde File Prep and Dolo Endogel chelating agents differed significantly (p < 0.0001) in reduction of dentin microhardness from RC help and Endo Prep RC.

Conclusion

Glyde File Prep and Dolo Endogel are significantly better than RC Help and Endo Prep RC in reducing dentin microhardness.

How to cite this article

Napte BD, Srinidhi SR. Evaluation of the Action of Chelating Agents on the Microhardness of Superficial Layer of Root Canal Lumen Dentin. World J Dent 2014;5(2):124-128.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Vikas Bendgude, Hrishikesh Walimbe, Mohammed Nadeem Ahmed Bijle, Sneha Muchandi, Rahul Deshpande, Arti Dolas, Shrishti Chaturvedi

Comparative Evaluation of the Efficacy of Topical Anesthetics in Reducing Pain during Administration of Injectable Local Anesthesia in Children

[Year:2014] [Month:April-June] [Volume:5] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:129 - 133]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1273  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction

Pain control is an integral part of modern dentistry. Needle injection of local anesthetic which is the commonest modality of pain control itself proves to be painful for the child. Hence, it is important for the pediatric dentists to resort to a pain free method of administering local anesthesia for a patient. Topical anesthetics have proven to reduce the pain experience during administration of local anesthetic injection. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the efficacy of two topical anesthetic agents—EMLA 5% cream (Eutectic mixture of local anesthetics—Lignocaine 2.5% and prilocaine 2.5%) and Benzocaine 20% gel in reducing the pain during administration of local anesthetic injection in children.

Materials and methods

EMLA 5% cream and Benzocaine 20% gel were used in the study. Children from mixed dentition age group between 6 and 9 years of age were selected. The two selected topical anesthetics were applied on buccal mucosa at two different appointments in a given child, following which the local anesthetic was administered on the test site. The pain responses of the child were evaluated using the Wong Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale. The results were then statistically analyzed using Mann-Whitney U-test.

Results

EMLA 5% cream was three times highly effective in pain reduction than Benzocaine 20% gel.

Conclusion

EMLA 5% cream is comparatively better than benzocaine 20% gel with regards to pain reduction during the administration of local anesthetic injection in children.

How to cite this article

Walimbe H, Muchandi S, Bijle MNA, Bendgude V, Deshpande R, Dolas A, Chaturvedi S. Comparative Evaluation of the Efficacy of Topical Anesthetics in Reducing Pain during Administration of Injectable Local Anesthesia in Children. World J Dent 2014;5(2):129-133.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Deepak Mehta, Rohit Shetty, Ganesh R Bhandari

Vinyl Polysiloxane Ether: A Breakthrough in Elastomeric Impression Material

[Year:2014] [Month:April-June] [Volume:5] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:134 - 137]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1274  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Shetty RM, Bhandari GR, Mehta D. Vinyl Polysiloxane Ether: A Breakthrough in Elastomeric Impression Material. World J Dent 2014;5(2):134-137.

CASE REPORT

Mateus Rodrigues Tonetto, Shelon Cristina Souza Pinto, Alvaro Henrique Borges, José Roberto Cury Saad, Luiz Rafael Calixto, Matheus Coelho Bandeca, Thiago Soares Porto, Kamila de Figueiredo Pereira

Interactions between Restorative Dentistry and Periodontics: Preparation and Cementation of an Onlay in Empress (Part III)

[Year:2014] [Month:April-June] [Volume:5] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:138 - 142]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1275  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

How to cite this article

Bandéca MC, Pinto SCS, Tonetto MR, de Figueiredo Pereira K, Porto TS, Calixto LR, Borges AH, Saad JRC. Interactions between Restorative Dentistry and Periodontics: Preparation and Cementation of an Onlay in Empress (Part III). World J Dent 2014;5(2):138-142.

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