World Journal of Dentistry

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2023 | July | Volume 14 | Issue 7

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Siribang-on P Khovidhunkit, Nuha A Guddoos, Sopee Poomsawat, Sudaporn Kengkarn, Puangwan Lapthanasupkul, Phaibul Punyarit, Pimsupak Boonmongkolraksa, Sirima Sanguansin

Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and p16INK4a Expression in Formalin-fixed, Paraffin-embedded Tissues of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas: A Retrospective Study

[Year:2023] [Month:July] [Volume:14] [Number:7] [Pages:7] [Pages No:569 - 575]

Keywords: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded, Head and neck cancer, Human papillomavirus, Polymerase chain reaction, p16INK4a expression

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2261  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) tissues. Materials and methods: A total of 176 FFPE tissues of HNSCC were retrospectively collected. The integrity of DNA extracts was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis using primers specific for the β-globin gene and 54 DNA extracts were positive for further evaluation. Nested PCR analysis using consensus primers specific to the L1 region of HPV was subsequently performed. HPV typing was investigated using DNA sequencing analysis. The p16INK4a expression was examined in HPV-positive samples using immunohistochemical staining with p16INK4a antibody. Results: Out of 54 samples, only one sample (1.85%) was positive for HPV-DNA. DNA sequencing analysis confirmed the presence of HPV type 16. The HPV-positive sample came from a married male patient with a history of smoking and alcohol consumption. The tumor was located on the laryngeal area with the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma. Strongly positive p16INK4a was detected in the HPV-positive sample. The majority of HPV-negative patients had a history of smoking, alcohol consumption, and betel nut chewing habit. Conclusion: Very low prevalence of HPV suggested that HPV might not play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of HNSCC in this group of patients. However, strong p16INK4a expression was exhibited in the sample with the presence of a high-risk type of HPV. Clinical significance: Smoking, alcohol consumption, and betel nut chewing habit might play a more important role than HPV infection in the carcinogenesis of HNSCC in the present study. The p16INK4a overexpression could be used to predict the presence of high-risk HPV.



Pratyakcha Jha, P Sujitha, Kavitha Ramar, Victor S Andiyappan, Rajakumar Sekar, Gayathri Jagannathan

Prevalence of Molar Incisal Hypomineralization and its Association with Dental Caries, Oral hygiene Status, and Body Mass Index

[Year:2023] [Month:July] [Volume:14] [Number:7] [Pages:5] [Pages No:576 - 580]

Keywords: Body mass index, Dental caries, Molar incisor hypomineralization, Oral hygiene status, Prevalence

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2286  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To determine the prevalence of molar incisal hypomineralization (MIH) in 8–12-year-old children of Chengalpattu population, Tamil Nadu, India. This study also attempts to find the association of MIH with body mass index (BMI), dental caries, and oral hygiene status. Materials and methods: A total of 430 schoolchildren between 8 and 12 years of age participated in this cross-sectional study. For MIH diagnosis, the European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (EAPD) standards were used. The other parameters measured were height, weight, OHI-S score, and decayed, missing or filled teeth (DMFT) index. A descriptive summary of data was obtained and the Chi-square test and Pearson's correlation test were performed. Results: The prevalence of MIH is 10.9%. Children aged 10 displayed the highest prevalence (48.9%) of any age-group. Statistically significant differences and strong correlations were achieved among the children with MIH pertaining to dental caries, BMI, height, debris index, and OHI-S score. Conclusion: The prevalence of MIH in the Chengalpattu district was 10.9% with no gender predilection. Yellow/brown demarcated opacities, with posteruptive breakdown being the most common type (74.4%). The study also found that there was an association of MIH with dental caries, oral hygiene status, and BMI of the child. Clinical significance: The MIH is a global dental issue that needs to be addressed at an early stage in order to prevent its rapid progression. This study helps in identifying the prevalence of this condition among the particular population, thereby stressing the importance of early identification and prevention. Further studies are required to find the strong etiology of this global disease.



Souad H Alhaider, Rafi A Togoo, Reem M Hakami, Noha S Alzamil, Abeer A Alassmi, Aseelah A AlShahrani, Raida A Moadi, Tasneem S Ain

Impact of Noise on the Hearing and Tinnitus among Dental Students, Interns, and Dental Practitioners: A Cross-sectional Study

[Year:2023] [Month:July] [Volume:14] [Number:7] [Pages:5] [Pages No:581 - 585]

Keywords: Dental professionals, Dental specialties, Dental students, Noise

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2253  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To assess the impact of noise on hearing and tinnitus among dental students, interns, and dental practitioners. Materials and methods: The presentation was carried out on 100 subjects, including dental students, interns, and dental faculty, using a self-administered questionnaire for demographic data, information regarding noise exposure, and precautions taken by dental professionals in dental set-up. To analyze the knowledge and awareness of dental professionals regarding the impact of noise on hearing and the protection of ears, 14 well-constructed questions were framed and asked of the subjects. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The majority of subjects were consultants, followed by technicians and dental students. Maximum subjects, 62%, had 5–10 years of experience. The maximum exposure was 4–6 hours, with only 2% of subjects diagnosed with hearing loss, but 29% complained of tinnitus. Most dental professionals were not using hearing protective aids, and they did not even feel that the noise of the dental set-up could cause hearing loss or tinnitus. Few felt headaches and sleep disturbance. Noise levels were found to be maximum in the laboratory, followed by the Department of Periodontics, Restorative Dentistry, and Pedodontics, with a statistically significant relation (p-value < 0.05) between the specialty and level of hearing loss. Conclusion: Around 2% of the subjects were diagnosed with hearing loss, while 29% complained of tinnitus, which was minimal and intermittent. The dental professionals had limited knowledge about the effects of noise levels on health. Clinical significance: The present study provides insight into the impact of noise generated in dental set-up due to various dental equipment and thus the dental professionals and students would take necessary precautions as well as treat work-related hearing disorders at the earliest.



Eman H Kadhom, Nada Jafer MH Radhi

The Impact of Hyperthyroidism on Dental Caries in relation to Salivary Constituents among Women: A Case Control Study

[Year:2023] [Month:July] [Volume:14] [Number:7] [Pages:6] [Pages No:586 - 591]

Keywords: Chloride, Dental caries, Electrolytes, Hyperthyroidism, Salivary flow rate, Potassium, Potential of hydrogen

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2251  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of hyperthyroidism on dental caries among women regarding the salivary potential of hydrogen (pH), salivary flow rate (SFR), salivary chloride (Cl), and potassium (K). Materials and methods: A case control comparative study design was used in the present study; the sample size was 90 females between the ages of 25 and 45. The study population was divided into two groups; the case group included 45 participants. Which has a history of hyperthyroidism, while the control group included 45 healthy females. The clinical examination was performed according to the instructions of the World Health Organization (WHO) 2013. The saliva was collected in order to determine the SFR, pH, and electrolyte concentrations. Salivary K and Cl were measured using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry method and the colorimetric method, respectively. Results: The caries experience in the hyperthyroid group was higher compared to the healthy group but with no significant difference. Salivary pH and flow rate was lower among the hyperthyroid group compared to the healthy group, but there was no statistically significant difference. Electrolytes were higher in the study group than in the control group, with a significant difference. The correlation between salivary electrolytes and caries experience was nonsignificant. Conclusion: The present study revealed that patients with hyperthyroidism had greater levels of caries experience when compared to the healthy group, and that was associated with a decrease in SFR and pH. As a consequence, patients with hyperthyroidism require special care for their dental health. Clinical significance: The medical history evaluation is extremely important for oral health and has significantly influenced oral health. Therefore, it is important to recognize the possible consequences of hyperthyroidism on oral health. Dental healthcare practitioners must be aware of the oral and systemic manifestations of the hyperthyroidism. The risk of dental caries increased as the SFR decreased among these patients, in addition to changes in salivary pH and electrolytes, so patients with hyperthyroidism have a greater need for dental care.



Gautami S Penmetsa, Mohan K Pasupulet, Konathala SV Ramesh, Boddeda Anusha, Bypalli Vivek, Vinnakota Keerthi

Assessment of Periodontal Examination and Diagnostic Skills through Objective Structured Clinical Examination: An Observational Assessment Tool

[Year:2023] [Month:July] [Volume:14] [Number:7] [Pages:6] [Pages No:592 - 597]

Keywords: Dental education, Diagnosis, Objective structured clinical examination, Periodontal examination, Students

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2249  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of the study was to assess and compare the periodontal examination skills by the conventional and objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) methods. Materials and methods: A group of 74 final-year dental students was assessed for periodontal examination skills by five different subject experts in this pilot survey. The students were given scores for all four domains and compared both the conventional and OSCE total scores. Self-assessment of competence was evaluated by asking the students to indicate their competence levels for four competence domains on a 4-point scale. Results: In the cognitive domain, that is, at the examination station, 63.5% of the student's communication skills were good with 66.2% good attitude. On intraoral gingival examination, all the gingival parameters were found to be accurate by students up to 59 and 100% by conventional and OSCE methods of assessment. However, on periodontal examinations, a maximum number of students could accurately examine the periodontal pocket which constituted 65% by conventional and 100% OSCE methods of assessment. Conclusion: Following the OSCE's deployment, it appeared that this technique had been sufficiently modified to demonstrate objectivity, reproducibility, and effectiveness for the evaluation of dental students diagnosing skills. Clinical significance: The OSCE assessments are widely regarded as the gold standard for assessing clinical competency and have been shown to be extremely successful in assessing dental students’ examination skills.



Geetanshu Bhalla, Abhishek Bansal, Navneet Kukreja, Ankita Sharma, Swati Chhabra, Surinder Sachdeva

Irrigation Sequence Influence on Penetration of Root Canal Sealers in Dentinal Tubule: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and Push-out Bond Strength Analysis

[Year:2023] [Month:July] [Volume:14] [Number:7] [Pages:6] [Pages No:598 - 603]

Keywords: AH plus, Confocal laser scanning microscopy, MTA fillapex, Push-out bond strength, Zinc oxide eugenol sealer

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2266  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To assess the influence of irrigation sequence on penetration and push-out bond strength of three root canal sealers into radicular dentin and their chemical interaction by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Materials and methods: A total of 90 caries-free single-rooted mandibular premolars were decoronated up to cementoenamel junction (CEJ) and for biomechanical preparation, WaveOne Gold primary files were used. Based on the irrigation sequence used, samples were divided into group I (30)—5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) + 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) + distilled water, group II (30)—17% EDTA + 5% NaOCl + distilled water, and group III (30)—5% NaOCl + distilled water. These groups were further subdivided into subgroups based on the sealers used for obturation [AH plus, zinc oxide (ZnO) eugenol, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) fillapex, respectively] and mixed with 0.1% rhodamine B dye for fluorescence. Samples were viewed under the Confocal laser scanning microscope, and 2 mm thick slices from coronal, middle, and apical sections were analyzed for push-out bond strength using the universal testing machine. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post hoc analysis were done (p-value < 0.05). Results: The results obtained were statistically significant (p-value < 0.05), with the greatest push-out bond strength with group I, followed by group II, and the least with group III. With respect to the sealer used for obturation, AH plus exhibited better penetration, followed by MTA fillapex, and the least penetration was seen in the case of the ZnO eugenol sealer. Apical sections exhibited greater bond strength, while maximum sealer penetration was seen in the coronal sections. Conclusion: The sequence in which the irrigation protocol is followed does affect the dentinal tubule penetration of root canal sealers and their bonding with dentin. The final irrigation sequence of 5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA proved to be more effective for sealer penetration into the dentinal tubules. Clinical significance: The irrigation regime followed is important in achieving disinfection as well as smear layer removal. This directly influences the sealer penetration percentage and has a positive effect on sealer penetration depth.



Ahmed N Elsherbini, Tarek K Alsharif, Nancy N Elsherbini

Dislodging Force Resistance in Hemi-mandibulectomy Patients Rehabilitated with Acrylic Resin and 3D-printed Resin Prostheses

[Year:2023] [Month:July] [Volume:14] [Number:7] [Pages:4] [Pages No:604 - 607]

Keywords: Dislodgment, Hemi-mandibulectomy, Three-dimensional printing, Twin occlusion

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2265  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of this crossover study was to compare dislodging resistance in hemi-mandibulectomy patients who had been rehabilitated with prostheses made of conventional acrylic resin (CA), conventional acrylic resin lined with a soft liner (CAS), and three-dimensional (3D)—printed resin. Materials and methods: Patients were selected with hemi-mandibulectomy class III according to the Cantor and Curtis classification. Patients had a conventional acrylic denture for the upper arch with twin occlusion. For the lower arch, the patient received a conventional acrylic denture, after 3 months it was lined with a soft liner, and after 3 months, it was retrieved and they were given a 3D-printed denture for 3 more months. Resistance to dislodging force was measured using a force gauge at insertion and after 3 months. Results: The resistance to dislodging forces was highest in the printed denture, followed by lined acrylic followed by the conventional acrylic with mean values of (3.72 ± 0.057) Newton (N), (2.696 ± 0.151) N, and (1.91 ± 0.089) N, respectively. Conclusion: Three-dimensional (3D)—printed denture bases showed the highest resistance to dislodging forces, followed by the CAS, and finally the CA. Clinical significance: Aiding patients with hemi-mandibulectomy with the best material to be used in their rehabilitation with dental prostheses.



Annapoorna K Kamath, Aravind R Kudva, Afiya Eram, Prathap M Sreekantan, Shravan Kini

Comparative Evaluation of Fracture Resistance of Posterior Teeth Restored Using Three New Composite Materials: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2023] [Month:July] [Volume:14] [Number:7] [Pages:5] [Pages No:608 - 612]

Keywords: Adhesives, Bonding, Composite, Fracture

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2259  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The Aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture resistance of premolar teeth restored using three new composite materials. Materials and methods: A total of 75 noncarious maxillary premolars, divided into five groups of 15 in each group were subjected to mechanical tests to evaluate their resistance to fracture. Group I consisted of Intact teeth. Group II received [mesio-occlusal distal (MOD)] cavity preparation and was left unrestored, group III received (MOD) preparation restored with evereX posterior. Teeth in group IV received (MOD) preparation and were restored with smart dentin replacement. Teeth in group V received (MOD) cavity preparation and were restored with 3M Filtek bulk-fill. The restored teeth were then subjected to compressive axial load in a mechanical testing appliance which was then subjected to thermocycling for 500 cycles at temperatures of 5 and 55° C. Results: The fracture resistance was found to be maximum in group III samples and was least in group II. The comparative evaluation showed significant statistical differences in fracture resistance determined in various groups studied. Conclusion: Under compression loading and within the limitations of this study, it was found that the everX posterior increased the resistance to fracture almost similar to that of sound teeth. EverX posterior showed the same fracture toughness as a healthy intact tooth. The samples containing smart dentin replacement (SDR) and 3M had fracture resistance lower than the natural unprepared tooth. Clinical significance: The newer tooth-colored restorative materials demonstrated good fracture toughness and better biocompatibility when compared to previously used dental materials.



Mohanraj Kamatchi, Kumaresan Agalya, Kaliappan Aishvarya, Arumugasamy Niranjana, Krishnamoorthy Ragini, Jeyaraman Preethi

Association of Dermatoglyphics with Children's Behavior during Extraction under Local Anesthesia: A Cross-sectional Pilot Study

[Year:2023] [Month:July] [Volume:14] [Number:7] [Pages:4] [Pages No:613 - 616]

Keywords: Behavior, Children, Fingerprints, Local anesthesia

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2263  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the association of fingerprint patterns with the behavior of the child during extraction under local anesthesia. Materials and methods: The study was conducted among 50 children aged 4–9 years old. After getting informed consent from their parents, the extraction of primary mandibular molars was carried out under local anesthesia. The behavior of the children was noted during the extraction process. In the subsequent stage, the fingerprint was collected by placing the right and left thumb on the ink stamp followed by the impression on a white sheet. The thumbprint impression was categorized based on the types of fingerprint patterns and it was statistically analyzed. The Chi-squared test was done to find the association of fingerprints with behavior. Results: The left thumbprint showed 10 arch patterns, 24 loop patterns, and 16 whorl patterns, and the right thumbprint showed four arch patterns, 26 loop patterns, and 20 whorl patterns. The majority of the children with loop patterns showed Frankl's positive behavior, however, there was no significant relation between fingerprint pattern and cooperation of the child. Conclusion: There was no significant relationship between the fingerprint patterns and behavior of children aged 4–9 years during extraction under local anesthesia. Clinical significance: Assessment of children based on their behavior is one of the most important skills for a pediatric dentist. Fingerprint patterns might aid in predicting the degree of cooperation by children during dental procedures. The identification of children's behavior might help in choosing the appropriate behavior management technique to deal with the children in the dental office.



Asmath Jehan, Ahila S Chidambaranathan, Muthukumar Balasubramanium

Effect of Nanoparticles on Mechanical Properties of Chemically Activated Provisional PMMA Resin: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2023] [Month:July] [Volume:14] [Number:7] [Pages:8] [Pages No:617 - 624]

Keywords: Autopolymerized polymethyl methacrylate resin, Flexural strength, Nanoparticles, Surface hardness

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2264  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To evaluate the flexural strength and surface hardness of chemically activated provisional polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin incorporated with 2.5% zirconia, titanium, and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanoparticles after 24 hours in distilled water and 2 weeks in artificial saliva after fabrication. Materials and methods: According to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 10477:2018, a rectangular-shaped die with 25 mm l × 2 mm w × 2 mm h and wheel shape die with a diameter of 15 mm and thickness of 1 mm were made to investigate the flexural strength and surface hardness. A total of 160 samples were prepared and categorized as groups F (flexural strength) and S (surface hardness). Groups F and S were further subdivided into two groups—group I (24 hours in distilled water) and group II (2 weeks in artificial saliva), then they were subdivided into group A (control) no nanoparticle, group II (2.5% zirconia), group III (2.5%titanium oxide), and group IV (2.5% Al2O3). A total of 10 samples were fabricated in each category the flexural strength test was done using a universal testing machine and the hardness test was done using a digital Vickers microhardness tester. The obtained values were statistically analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD) test at a significant level of p < 0.05. Results: The mean values of flexural strength of autopolymerized provisional PMMA resin control, zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and Al2O3 nanoparticles reinforced groups in 24 hours in distilled water were 97.96, 152.81, 140.79, and 137.85 MPa, respectively, and 2 weeks in artificial saliva were 98.43, 150.43, 141.06, and 139.00 MPa, respectively. The surface hardness of autopolymerized provisional PMMA resin control, ZrO2, TiO2, and Al2O3 nanoparticles reinforced groups in 24 hours in distilled water was 28, 33.9, 32, and 30.8 Vickers hardness test (VHN), respectively, and 2 weeks in artificial saliva were 28.7, 34, 32, and 32 VHN, respectively. Conclusion: Autopolymerized provisional PMMA resin reinforced with 2.5% zirconium nanoparticles showed statistically significant flexural strength and surface hardness than conventional provisional PMMA resin and 2.5% TiO2 and 2.5% Al2O3 nanoparticles reinforced groups after 24 hours in distilled water and 2 weeks in artificial saliva after fabrication. Clinical significance: The provisional restorations are subjected to masticatory forces during function and are easily prone to fracture. The use of autopolymerized provisional PMMA resin reinforced with 2.5% zirconium nanoparticles increased the mechanical properties of the provisional restoration; hence, it can be recommended for provisional restorations to increase the life span in clinical practice.



Vikram Shetty, Subhajit Das, Tripthi P Shetty, Ganaraj Shetty

Assessment of Occlusal Contacts Following Bi-jaw Orthognathic Surgery Using T-scan: A Prospective Clinical Study

[Year:2023] [Month:July] [Volume:14] [Number:7] [Pages:4] [Pages No:625 - 628]

Keywords: Bite force, Masticatory efficiency, Occlusion, Orthognathic surgery

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2257  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of the study was to assess occlusion in patients undergoing bi-jaw orthognathic surgeries (OGS). Materials and methods: A prospective study was done on 20 patients between the age-group of 18 and 32 years having skeletal malocclusions requiring bi-jaw OGS. The occlusal contacts of patients undergoing bi-jaw OGS were assessed in two phases using a T-scan device—(1) immediately prior to surgery and (2) after 3 months of orthognathic surgery. Patients were made to sit in a natural position with Frankfort horizontal plane parallel to the ground, occlusal contacts were recorded using specialized wafers, and information was recorded digitally using a T-scan device. Results: The study included 20 patients (7 males and 13 females) with a mean age of 22.7 years. The mean number of teeth in contact increased from 2.7 to 3.3 on the left side and 3.3 to 3.7 on the right side when assessed 3 months postoperatively indicating a significant improvement in postoperative occlusal contacts. Conclusion: The significant increase in the occlusal contacts over the left and right side postoperatively implies a better stomatognathic system and improved masticatory efficiency postorthognathic surgery. Clinical significance: Orthognathic surgery has been routinely performed to enhance the patient's facial esthetics, thus the concept of functional occlusion is sometimes forgotten. This study helps in assessing the functional aspect of orthognathic surgery in terms of occlusal contacts which is a keystone in a successful orthognathic surgery.



Yadav Chakravarthy, Vyapaka Pallavi, Aishwarya Santosh, Vanita D Revankar, Mohammed N Asmee, Subhashini Manoharan

Evaluation of Quantum in Human Tooth Remineralization and Microhardness Potential with Two Types of Red Algae: An In Vitro Comparative Study

[Year:2023] [Month:July] [Volume:14] [Number:7] [Pages:5] [Pages No:629 - 633]

Keywords: Algae, Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride, Demineralization, Lithothamnion calcareum, Lithothamnion superpositum, Remineralization, Vickers microhardness test, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2277  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The study aimed to investigate and compare the remineralization potential of Lithothamnion calcareum and Lithothamnion superpositum on tooth enamel with commercially available casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride (CPP-ACPF). Materials and methods: A total of 30 human third molars indicated for extraction was chosen for this study. Carious lesions depicting the early stages of tooth subsurface enamel lesions were produced by immersing tooth samples in a demineralization bath for 72 hours. The samples were divided into three groups of 10 each. Group I (control): CPP-ACPF, group II: Lithothamnion calcareum, and group III: Lithothamnion superpositum. The teeth were immersed in their respective solutions and the samples were then kept in a thermobath for 21 hours for 7 days following which they were then tested by Vickers microhardness test and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Results: Group II—Lithothamnion calcareum, exhibited a better remineralization potential of (224.35) than group III—Lithothamnion superpositum (215.64). Nonetheless, the commercial agent, a group I (CPP-ACPF), displayed the most efficiency in remineralizing tooth enamel. Conclusion: Among the alternative potential remineralizing samples tested, group II—Lithothamnion calcareum, exhibited maximum remineralization potential value followed by other algae but was not to the extent of the commercially available CPP-ACPF. The results of this study with regard to the alternative tooth-enamel remineralizing samples tested, were promising. Clinical significance: The alternative, a tooth-enamel remineralizing agent will serve as a natural and economical option for all sections of society, especially in rural India.



V RS Harshitha, M Jeevitha

Comparative Evaluation of Wettability of Chlorhexidine, Betadine, and Herbal Mouthwash: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2023] [Month:July] [Volume:14] [Number:7] [Pages:5] [Pages No:634 - 638]

Keywords: Betadine, Chlorhexidine, Contact angle, Herbal, Mouthwash, Wettability

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2278  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The study aims to assess the wettability of three different commercially available types of mouthwash—Betadine, chlorhexidine (CHX), and herbal mouthwash (HiOra) using contact angle goniometer. Materials and methods: A total of 30 anterior teeth was sectioned longitudinally to produce 10 mm long, thin enamel plates with intact labial surfaces and divided into three groups corresponding to the three different types of mouthwash (Betadine, CHX, and HiOra mouthwash) with 10 enamel plates in each group. Using the Ossila goniometer, the contact angle for each droplet was measured from the base of the enamel plate section and the line angle at which the droplet makes contact with the tooth surface. The wettability of the samples was evaluated as it is inversely proportional to the contact angle with the facial surface of the microtomed teeth. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used to compare the contact angle measurements among the three different types of mouthwash and multiple intergroup comparisons were done using Tukey's post hoc test. Results: HiOra mouthwash had the lowest average contact angle of 15.7980 than Betadine (17.9600) and CHX (23.5340) and the results were statistically significant (p-value of 0.0070). Conclusion: The results showed that the wettability of HiOra was more when compared to Betadine and CHX and thus further studies are to be evaluated to determine its beneficial activities. Clinical significance: Low contact-angle values demonstrate the tendency of the mouthwash to spread and adhere to the surface. Numerous biological processes depend heavily on surface wettability of mouthwashes. Evaluating the wettability of commonly prescribed mouthwashes is crucial in determining the efficacy of these mouthwashes for their biological actions.



Remmiya Mary Varghese, Aravind K Subramanian, Mathew T Maliael

PowerScope™ for Class II Malocclusions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

[Year:2023] [Month:July] [Volume:14] [Number:7] [Pages:9] [Pages No:639 - 647]

Keywords: Class II malocclusion, Functional appliances, Growth modulation, Malocclusion, Orthodontics, PowerScope

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2283  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to study the effects of PowerScope™ for the treatment of class II malocclusions. Materials and methods: The review protocol was registered in the Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) database (, protocol number: CRD42022309678). A population, intervention, comparison, outcome, and study design (PICOS) criterion was developed to aid the search strategy and determine the eligibility of studies for inclusion in the review. A thorough systematic search of various scientific databases was performed to identify relevant studies. The risk of bias tool and methodological index for nonrandomized studies (MINORS) tool were used to evaluate the risk of bias. Results: After screening of titles and abstracts, a total of 148 articles were identified. After the removal of duplicates, 82 articles remained. Finally, six studies were selected to be included in the qualitative analysis, and three studies were further included in the quantitative analysis. All of the included studies showed a high risk of bias, and the overall quality of the methodology was determined to be moderate. The quantitative analysis showed no significant difference in the treatment effects between the intervention and control groups. Conclusion: The qualitative synthesis showed better skeletal changes with the Forsus Fatigue Resistant Device (FRD) appliance, whereas better dentoalveolar changes were seen with the PowerScope™ appliance. However, these results were not supported by results from the quantitative analysis. Clinical significance: It is necessary to understand the clinical treatment outcomes of PowerScope™ in the management of class II malocclusions to recommend its utilization in contemporary clinical practice.



Zafeiria Mavrogiannidou, Vasiliki Boka, Aristidis Arhakis

An Overview of the Types of Soft Drinks and Their Impact on Oral Health: Review of Literature

[Year:2023] [Month:July] [Volume:14] [Number:7] [Pages:7] [Pages No:648 - 654]

Keywords: Caries, Dental erosion, Soft drinks, Sugar-sweetened beverages

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2252  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The present study is to review the literature about soft drinks, their types, history, ingredients as well as their effect on oral health. Background: Soft beverages are predominantly consumed by children, adolescents, and young adults. They are categorized into various types, such as carbonated drinks, still and juice drinks, fruit juices, bottled waters, and sports and energy drinks. While their popularity continues to surge, their potential implications for oral health are a matter of concern, thus necessitating this review. Review results: Soft drinks, either carbonated or noncarbonated, typically contain water, a sweetening agent, and flavoring and are often sold as ready-to-drink or dilutable beverages. While sports drinks replenish water and electrolytes to aid athletic performance, they vary in terms of isotonicity. Diet drinks, on the other hand, are sugar-free carbonated beverages. Energy drinks boost energy, with caffeine being a common ingredient. The high acidity and frequent consumption of these beverages can lead to dental erosion, caries development, and discoloration of resin composites. Additionally, decreased bracket retention, corrosion of stainless-steel brackets, and discoloration of elastomeric materials have been associated with orthodontic patients. Overconsumption of soft drinks may also increase the risk of periodontal disease. Conclusion: Given the increasing consumption of soft drinks and their significant impact on oral health, it is crucial for healthcare professionals to have a comprehensive understanding of their potential implications. Further studies in this field are necessary to establish a more definitive link. Clinical significance: Dentists should advise young patients about the consequences of frequent soft drink consumption and provide positive recommendations to eliminate the risk.


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