[Year:2023] [Month:April] [Volume:14] [Number:4] [Pages:6] [Pages No:302 - 307]
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the demographic variables and clinical parameters and to quantify the levels of L-plastin in subgingival tissue samples of generalized severe chronic periodontitis subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Materials and methods: The participants in this study were chosen from the Outpatient Department of Periodontology, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College (MADC), Meenakshi Academy of Higher Education and Research (MAHER), Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Two groups of 70 participants, each with generalized severe chronic periodontitis, were chosen. A total of 35 people in the group I had generalized, severe chronic periodontitis without any other systemic causes. Group II included people with type 2 diabetes who had generalized severe chronic periodontitis. Age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and income were all recorded, as well as periodontal metrics like plaque index, bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL). Both groups had subgingival tissue samples taken at the site of the periodontal surgery. The obtained samples were then subjected to molecular analysis, including real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for measuring L-plastin messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring protein concentration.
Results: The mean income, plaque index, CAL, and the mRNA expression and protein quantification of L-plastin were found to be statistically significant between the groups. On correlating the periodontal parameters with the mRNA expression and protein quantification, plaque index and CAL had a significant correlation with L-plastin in both groups. However, group II showed higher periodontal destruction with the presence of this protein.
Conclusion: The subgingival tissue samples of subjects with generalized severe chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus showed elevated levels of mRNA expression and L-plastin protein quantification, indicating that these molecules were locally involved in the pathogenesis of both periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It can be utilized as a biomarker for the early detection of individuals at risk for periodontitis and diabetes mellitus.