World Journal of Dentistry

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2022 | Supplementary Issue 1 | Volume 13 | Issue S1

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Kaviyarasi Renu, Veeraraghavan Vishnu Priya, Abilash Valsala Gopalakrishnan

Do MMPs in the Oral Fluid Act as a Noninvasive Biomarker for Diabetes Mellitus-associated Periodontal Diseases?

[Year:2022] [Month:Supplementary Issue 1] [Volume:13] [Number:S1] [Pages:2] [Pages No:S1 - S2]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2143  |  Open Access | 



Prathamesh D Fulsundar, Vijaysinh More, Rama Bhadekar, Jinal Bhola

Comparative Evaluation of Ozonated Water and 0.5% Sodium Hypochlorite for their Effect of Disinfection and Surface Wettability on Polyvinyl Siloxane Impression Material

[Year:2022] [Month:Supplementary Issue 1] [Volume:13] [Number:S1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:S3 - S7]

Keywords: Colony count, Dental impression, Disinfection, Infection control, Ozone, Sodium hypochlorite, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Wettability

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2130  |  Open Access | 


Aim: To evaluate and compare the disinfection of polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impression material using ozonated water and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and their effect on surface wettability. Materials and methods: Fifty circular disks of PVS impression material were fabricated. The samples were divided into three groups group A (20), group B (20), and group C (10). The samples from group A (20) were treated with ozonated water at room temperature for 10 minutes, and samples from group B (20) were treated with NaOCl (0.5%) at room temperature for 10 minutes. Samples of group C (10) were neither contaminated nor disinfected and were used as a control for microbial enumeration and surface wettability. The contact angle goniometer was used to determine the surface wettability using the sessile droplet technique. The plate count technique was used for microbial enumeration. Results: The treatment group with 0.5% NaOCl showed greater contact angle values which indicate decreased surface wettability, while the treatment group with ozonated water showed comparatively lesser contact angle values indicative of a very slight change in surface wettability of PVS impression material. Ozonated water and 0.5% NaOCl showed negligible colony-forming unit (CFU) count indicative of inhibition of bacterial colonies of Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus salivarius, and Staphylococcus aureus on PVS impression material. Conclusion: Treatment with ozonated water can significantly reduce microbial count on PVS impression material without a substantial alteration in surface wettability. Clinical significance: Along with the inactivation of microorganisms, disinfection procedures must guarantee that the hydrophilicity of the impression material remains unaltered to facilitate complete surface detail reproduction on the poured casts. As a consequence, more research is necessary to assess the impact of ozonated water on surface properties of various impression materials.



Reetubrita Bhol, Soumya Shetty, Riya Parwani, Piyush Oswal

Comparison of Intra-orifice Sealing Ability of Three Materials Placed after Endodontic Treatment: In Vitro Study

[Year:2022] [Month:Supplementary Issue 1] [Volume:13] [Number:S1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:S8 - S13]

Keywords: Bulk fill composite, Cention N, Microleakage, Stereomicroscope, Zirconomer

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2123  |  Open Access | 


Aim and objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the intra-orifice sealing ability of Cention N, packable bulk fill composite, and Zirconomer as an intra-orifice barrier in endodontically treated teeth under a stereomicroscope. Materials and methods: Thirty-three single-rooted teeth were decoronated at cementoenamel junction (CEJ). Following root canal treatment, 3 mm of the coronal gutta-percha was removed and the experimental material [group I (n = 11)—packable bulk fill composite, group II (n = 11)—Zirconomer, and group III (n = 11)—Cention N] was placed as an intra-orifice barrier. A dye penetration test was performed and observed under a stereomicroscope. The extent of dye penetration was measured and statistical analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc Tukey test was done. Results: The mean values of microleakage (in mm) for groups I, II, and III were 1.18, 0.81, and 0.74, respectively. Tukey–Kramer multiple comparison test showed no significant difference between mean values of microleakage when groups I, II, and III were compared at 5% and 1% level of significance. Student's unpaired t-test showed a significant difference between mean values of microleakage between group I and group III as well as group I and group II. No significant differences were seen between group II and group III. Conclusion: Among all the groups checked, group III (Cention N) showed the highest sealing ability as an intra-orifice barrier. Clinical significance: Intra-orifice barrier acts as a double seal and minimizes the amount of microleakage coronally in root canal-treated teeth. Immediate placement of additional material in the orifices acts as a secondary line of defense along with temporary filling after obturation.



Rheia Baijal, Parul Bansal, Suchinder Singla, Reena Goel, Kanika Arora, Sanna Choudhary

Cephalometric Comparison of Dentofacial Variables in Class I and Class II Jaw Bases: A Study for Different Growth Patterns

[Year:2022] [Month:Supplementary Issue 1] [Volume:13] [Number:S1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:S14 - S18]

Keywords: Antegonial notch, Growth pattern, Interincisal angle, Intermolar angle, Lateral cephalogram, Lower anterior facial height, Malocclusion, Ramal height

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2135  |  Open Access | 


Aim: To compare six dentofacial variables among different growth patterns in skeletal class I and class II jaw bases in a lateral cephalogram. Materials and methods: The sample consisted of 120 lateral cephalograms of patients with ages ranging from 18 to 35 years. The sample was divided equally on the basis of ANB angle, Wits appraisal, and beta angle into skeletal class I (group I, n = 60), and class II jaw bases (group II, n = 60). Each group was then further divided into average (SN–MP 28–32°), horizontal (SN–MP <28°), and vertical growth patterns (SN–MP >32°). Hence, there were a total of six groups with 20 cephalograms each. The six parameters: interincisal angle (IIA), intermolar angle (IMA), inclination of symphysis (ISY), antegonial notch depth (AGN), lower anterior facial height (LAFH), and ramus height (RH) were traced, and a comparison was made among different growth patterns in class I and class II jaw bases. Statistical analysis was done using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post hoc Bonferroni test. Results: Ramus height (RH) and AGN show an insignificant difference between class I and class II jaw bases irrespective of growth pattern. LAFH is significantly increased for class II jaw bases, and ISY is more for class I jaw bases for normodivergent and hypodivergent patterns. IIA and IMA are significantly more for class I jaw bases for normodivergent and hypodivergent growth patterns, respectively. Conclusion: There is a suggestive effect of anteroposterior jaw base relationship on the parameters considered in the study which were formerly considered to be influenced only by growth patterns. Clinical significance: From a clinical perspective, in an individual seeking orthodontic treatment, the decision to extract, anchorage preparation, biomechanics applied, and period of retention are dependent on different growth patterns and the anteroposterior relationship of jaw bases which is shown to be influenced by the parameters considered in this study.



P Jeevana, RNG Rajesh, Janis Shajan, Rony T Kondody, Anadha Gujar

Evaluation of the Reliability of an Android-based Application OneCeph with Computerized Cephalometric Program Nemoceph: A Comparative Study

[Year:2022] [Month:Supplementary Issue 1] [Volume:13] [Number:S1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:S19 - S22]

Keywords: Android, Cephalometry, Digital cephalometer, Software

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2121  |  Open Access | 


Aim: To assess the reliability of the OneCeph application in comparison with the Nemoceph cephalometric analysis program in determining five angular and five linear parameters. Materials and methods: A total of 54 pretreatment lateral cephalometric radiographs were obtained using a digital cephalometer (Gendex Orthoralix 9200 developmental defects of enamel (DDE), Gendex Dental Systems) were taken. After the identification of landmarks, five angular and five linear measurements were recorded, and cephalometric analysis was performed using computer-based software Nemoceph, and an android-based application OneCeph, respectively. The reliability (intraexaminer error) was evaluated using Spearman's correlation. Results: Spearman's correlation coefficient of angular and linear parameters for each method was r ≥ 0.8. A statistically significant difference was found between Nemoceph and OneCeph for two parameters, namely sella, nasion and point A (SNA) (p = 0.049) and upper incisor to nasion-point A (UI-NA) (mm) (p = 0.03), respectively. Conclusion: Using five angular and five linear measurements, the reliability of OneCeph was compared with the Nemoceph cephalometric analysis program, and the difference was found to be clinically insignificant for most of the parameters. Clinical significance: The android-based cephalometric application OneCeph seems to be reliable and could be considered as an alternative to Nemoceph. Thus, it fulfills the need for instant cephalometric values anytime and anywhere, especially in clinical practice.



Burra Anand Deepika, Jaiganesh Ramamurthy, Smiline Girija, Nadathur Duraisamy Jayakumar

Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effect of Ocimum sanctum L. Oral Gel against Anaerobic Oral Microbes: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2022] [Month:Supplementary Issue 1] [Volume:13] [Number:S1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:S23 - S27]

Keywords: Anaerobic microorganisms, Antimicrobial, Chlorhexidine, Dental plaque, Tulsi extract

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2140  |  Open Access | 


Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) gel against anaerobic oral microbes. Materials and methods: Subgingival plaque samples were collected from a patient diagnosed with periodontitis. The plaque sample was immediately transferred to an Eppendorf tube containing thioglycollate broth. The sample was incubated in anaerobic conditions at 37° for 24 hours. A total of 20 µL of the cultured broth was subcultured into the test O. sanctum L. (Tulsi gel) and control group gels [chlorhexidine (CHX) gel]. The subcultured gels were of five different concentrations (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 µL). The subcultured plaque samples were plated onto a Petri dish containing brain heart infusion (BHI) agar. The Petri dishes were incubated at 37° for 24 hours under anaerobic conditions. An anaerobic gas pack was placed in an anaerobic jar to create an anaerobic condition. After 24 hours, the number of colonies formed was observed and noted. Results: O. sanctum L. (Tulsi) gel demonstrated effective antimicrobial activity-against anaerobic oral microbes at 20 and 25%. A higher concentration of O. sanctum L. (Tulsi) gel is effective in demonstrating its potential use as an efficient and supplement for the quality level of treatment in periodontitis (periodontal condition). CHX gel showed no activity in comparison with the O. sanctum L. (Tulsi) gel. Conclusion: O. sanctum L. (Tulsi) plant extract illustrates antimicrobial efficacy against anaerobic oral microbes. O. sanctum L. (Tulsi) exhibited efficient antimicrobial activity against anaerobic oral microbes proving its potential use as an efficient and standard supplement in the treatment of periodontal conditions. Clinical significance: Periodontitis is an inflammation of a periodontal organ complex with various types of diseases which are linked with particular bacteria that occupy the subgingival portion. Extensive utilization of drugs developed side effects. It resulted in uncommon infections and also resulted in resistance. In various clinical situations, O. sanctum L. (Tulsi) is used as herbal medicine. Hence it was found to be an appropriate substitute to control the situations which are altering the oral cavity.



Shruti S Khade, Anita B Tandale, Shrirang Sangle, Karishma Krishnakumar, Sayali A Maral, Twinkle Talreja

Spectrophotometric Evaluation of Color Stability of New Hybrid and Nanocomposite Materials in Commonly Consumed Indian Beverages

[Year:2022] [Month:Supplementary Issue 1] [Volume:13] [Number:S1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:S28 - S32]

Keywords: Beverages, Discoloration, Green tea, Nanocomposites, Resin composite, Spectrophotometer

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2131  |  Open Access | 


Aim: The study aimed to compare the color stability of nanohybrid composites, a nanoceramic composite, and a universal nanofilled composite using a spectrophotometer. Materials and methods: A total of 144 disk-shaped specimens were prepared with a specially constructed mold into groups I, II, and III of ceram.x SphereTEC one, Brilliant™NG, GC SOLARE Sculpt, respectively. The samples were immersed in beverages containing tea, coffee, green tea, and Coca-Cola. After initial color measurements, 12 sample disks from each composite group were immersed in one of the solutions for 3 hours a day. The second measurements were made on the 7th day of immersion with the same digital spectrophotometer. The same procedure was repeated on the 15th and 30th days. Results: There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) for ceram.x SphereTEC one (group I) in tea, coffee, green tea, and Coca-Cola at 7, 15, and 30 days. Tea (1.85 ± 1.0) showed the lowest, whereas Coca-Cola (10.11 ± 4.6) revealed the highest ΔE value at 7 days. The ΔE values gradually increased for 15 and 30 days. The ΔE value increased for Coca-Cola in 7 days (6.96 ± 1.78) to 30 days (8.7 ± 1.3) in group II. The ΔE value increased for tea, coffee, and green tea from 7 to 30 days in group III. GC SOLARE Sculpt was the restorative material most prone to discoloration among the three. Conclusion: Tea showed maximum staining among all beverages. Green tea showed the least staining among all beverages. Tea, coffee, and Coca-Cola showed clinically significant staining properties among all beverages. Clinical significance: Composite discoloration is a common complaint among patients, and evaluation of color stability of composites is also of paramount importance in clinical dentistry.



Jeena Johnson, Sangeetha Morekonda Gnaneswar, Ravi Kannan, Srinivas Sivakumar, Anila Charles, Pathan Mohammed Siddiqullakhan

Comparison of Frictional Resistance between Three Self-ligating Brackets and a Conventional Bracket Using Three Different Archwires: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2022] [Month:Supplementary Issue 1] [Volume:13] [Number:S1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:S33 - S38]

Keywords: Archwires, Conventional bracket, Frictional resistance, Self-ligating brackets

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2127  |  Open Access | 


Aim: To evaluate frictional resistance among three different self-ligating brackets (SLBs) and a conventional bracket with three different archwires. Materials and methods: A total of 120 samples of three different types of mandibular second premolar SLBs—Damon Q, Empower 2, SmartClip brackets, and a Stainless Steel conventional bracket with three types of archwire segments 0.016 inch nickel-titanium (NiTi), 0.019 × 0.025 inch NiTi, 0.019 × 0.025 inch stainless steel were measured. They were divided into four groups, group I = Empower 2 brackets (10), group II = Damon Q brackets (10), group III = SmartClip brackets (10), and group IV = conventional brackets (10) in 0.022 inch slot size with MBT prescription were compared. The three archwires were pulled in each group to determine the frictional resistance using the universal testing machine (UTM) with a 100 gm load cell. Result: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to analyze the group means, and post hoc Duncan's multiple range test (MRT) was used to compare the mean frictional resistance between the pairs of different bracket groups. The Conventional bracket showed the highest mean values for all three wires, followed by SmartClip, Damon Q, and Empower 2 brackets, in that order. Among the archwires, 0.016 inch NiTi showed the least frictional resistance, while 0.019 × 0.025 inch SS showed the highest values with all three brackets. Conclusion: Among the four brackets, Empower 2 brackets showed the least frictional resistance. The combination of Empower 2 bracket and 0.016 inch NiTi wire showed the least frictional resistance among the different bracket–wire combinations. Hence it can be the preferred bracket for producing smooth, frictionless orthodontic tooth movement. Clinical significance: Friction at the bracket–archwire interface plays a key role in determining the orthodontic tooth movement and thereby influencing the treatment duration. Frictional resistance varies between interactive and passive self-ligating systems. Comparing different SLBs with conventional brackets, as done in this study, allows the best bracket system to be selected based on the tooth movement required.



Lichi Ashwin Solanki, Swapna Sreenivasagan

Cortical Bone Thickness and Root Proximity of Virtually Placed Mini-implants: A CBCT Evaluation

[Year:2022] [Month:Supplementary Issue 1] [Volume:13] [Number:S1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:S39 - S44]

Keywords: Bone thickness, Mini-implants, Root contact, Virtual implant planning

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2138  |  Open Access | 


Aim: The aim of this study was to place virtual mini-implants (MIs) in implant planning software and determine bone thickness (BT) as well as MI proximity to the root at various angulations. Materials and methods: A total of 55 cone-beam computed tomographies (CBCTs) were superimposed with the intraoral scans of the respective patients in the virtual implant planning software (3Shape Unite). The BT and root proximity of the virtual MIs were measured at 40°, 50°, and 70° to the tooth's long axis. IBM SPSS Statistics Software was used for the statistical analysis. Kruskal–Wallis test was used for intergroup and intragroup comparisons. Mann–Whitney U test was used for comparison among gender. Results: The BT was 1.27 ± 0.3, 1.06 ± 0.3, and 1.03 ± 0.21 at 40°, 50°, and 70° angulations, respectively (p < 0.05). The root proximity of virtual implants was 1.9 ± 1.01, 1.6 ± 0.8, and 0.5 ± 0.2 at 40°, 50°, and 70° angulations (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found among males and females at 40°, 50°, and 70° angulation for BT. However, the distance from the root at 50° was significantly lesser for females as compared to males (p < 0.05). Intragroup comparisons showed statistical significance for BT among all groups (p < 0.05), for root proximity of the virtual implants among groups I and III (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The mean cortical BT decreased, and the root proximity of virtual implant increased as the placement angulation increased from 40° to 70°. The BT did not differ significantly among males and females at all the angulations. The distance between the root and virtual implants was significantly lesser for females than males, only at 50° angulation. Clinical significance: Using virtual MI software will help in the accurate placement of MIs by engaging the maximum thickness of bone and reducing the failure rates by preventing root contact.



Saumya G Nair, Rony T Kondody, Manjusha Nambiar

Evaluation of Antibacterial Effect of Bioactive Primer over Chemical Primers in Bacterial-induced Secondary Caries: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2022] [Month:Supplementary Issue 1] [Volume:13] [Number:S1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:S45 - S50]

Keywords: 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid buffer, Chlorhexidine digluconate solution, Fluorescent microscopy, Green tea extract solution

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2132  |  Open Access | 


Aim: The study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of bioactive primer over chemical primers in and around the margins of class V composite restorations. Materials and methods: A total of 30 extracted mandibular premolars were chosen. These specimens were randomly divided into three groups (10 samples in each). At first, class V cavity was prepared, and cavity walls were then pretreated with 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-pperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer solution (group I), chlorhexidine (CHX) digluconate (group II), and extract of an enriched fraction of green tea (group III). The in vitro model with Streptococcus mutans [25175 American Type Culture Collection (ATCC)] was incubated for a period of 4 days. The dentin and enamel margins of the cavity walls were analyzed by fluorescence microscopy analysis. Results: The comparison of the mean distance from restoration in the dentinal region and also in the enamel region revealed that the distance at which the initial lesion was seen was approximately similar in all groups, while group III green tea extract (GTE) showed a zone of inhibition adjacent to restoration, which indicated the protective effect of green tea extract primer. Whereas mean lesion depth in the enamel and dentin region showed that lesion depth was less for group III compared to the other two groups. Therefore overall result demonstrated that the green tea extract primer significantly inhibited the development of secondary caries adjacent to the dentin resin interface at cavity walls. At the same time, no significant inhibition was observed in the enamel margins of cavity walls. Conclusion: Application of a green tea extract primer inhibited secondary caries formation. Neither the application of CHX nor HEPES buffer had much effect on the inhibitory effect on secondary caries. Clinical significance: Within the limitation of this study, green tea extract has shown the potential to be used in preventing the development of secondary caries. While current chemical primers were less effective, more potent chemical agents needed to develop as an alternative in the inhibition of secondary caries.



Archana Bhat, Naresh Shetty, Nivya KB, KB Shilpashree, Manoj Shetty

Evaluation of the Effect of Communication Skills Course among Dental Undergraduates: A Randomized Controlled Trial

[Year:2022] [Month:Supplementary Issue 1] [Volume:13] [Number:S1] [Pages:7] [Pages No:S51 - S57]

Keywords: Communication skills, Dental students, Undergraduate

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2142  |  Open Access | 


Aim: This study aimed at addressing those areas of weaknesses in communication with patients and evaluating the effect of training on the student's communication skills. Materials and methods: The design of the study was a randomized controlled trial with an objective to know the effect of communication skills course on dental undergraduates. The participants were divided randomly into experimental and control group. Comparison of posttest scores was done in control and experimental group after following interventions like elaboration of effective clinician/doctor–patient communication, dimensions of patient satisfaction and fundamental techniques, roleplay for two scenarios by group representatives with simulated patient (intern). Application of the learned skills of communication in real-life case scenarios, etc. Statistical analysis used: The normality was assessed using Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. Mean value was compared using t-test. Results: Mean score for the pretest and posttest was 1.009 ± 0.356 and 1.019 ± 0.343, respectively in the control group. Mean score for the preintervention test and postintervention test was 1.086 ± 0.356 and 1.387 ± 0.468, respectively. The difference between the pre- and posttest correct mean score was statistically highly significant with the p value ≤ 0.001. The mean score for the postintervention group was 1.387 ± 0.468, and the mean score for the control group was 1.019 ± 0.343. The difference between the two groups were statistically significant with the p value ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: The outcomes of this study showed that the course was effective enough in the improvement of the communication skills of dental students. Clinical significance: Communication skills training must be emphasized and must be included as a part of the BDS curriculum as it is directly related to the success of the treatment.



Nikita Jaiswal, Anjana Raut, Purna C Mishra

Stress Distribution Analysis of Implant-supported Fixed Prosthesis Framework Material in Peri-implant Bone Using Optimization: A 3D FEA Study

[Year:2022] [Month:Supplementary Issue 1] [Volume:13] [Number:S1] [Pages:8] [Pages No:S58 - S65]

Keywords: FEA, Implant prosthesis, Monolithic, Optimization, PEEK, Titanium, Zirconia

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2118  |  Open Access | 


Aim: The aim of the present study was to study the effect of different types of implant-supported prosthetic material on the stress distribution in peri-implant bone. And to explore the suitability of recent materials like polyether ether ketone (PEEK) and monolithic zirconia (M4) for implant framework designing. Materials and methods: Virtual mesh was designed for five different prosthetic materials (Mat) namely cobalt-chromium, titanium, zirconia, M4, and PEEK. Forces were directed in vertical, horizontal, and oblique directions to get different fringes of stress severity in the surrounding bone. Finite element analysis (FEA) along with optimization methods was used for in vitro testing and comparison. Statistical analysis was performed using von Mises Stress Analysis and unpaired t-test followed by optimization of FEA results. Results: PEEK was found to have a statistically significant (p-value < 0.0001) result with respect to stress distribution in peri-implant bone in D1 type bone. Moreover, M4 showed favorable results in other bone conditions (D2, D3 type). The responses were optimized through the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) concept of Taguchi Technique using MINITAB 17 software technique. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study PEEK and M4 were found to be the most efficient prosthetic material as compared to the conventionally used metal alloys. Higher crestal bone stresses were reported in all the FEA models suggesting occlusal forces were far more detrimental than the type of prosthetic material used. Clinical significance: The study is an experimental simulation of stresses associated with implant-supported fixed prosthesis material type and its influence on surrounding bone. The findings recommend the significant influence of bone density and type on the choice of prosthetic material and discourage the routine selection of cobalt-chromium for every case.



Patri Krishna Chaitanya, Sruthima NVS Gottumukkala, Konathala Santosh Venkata Ramesh, Pasupuleti Mohan Kumar, Kommula Mani Meghana

Evaluation of Clinical and Microbiological Outcomes of Photodynamic Therapy-assisted Flap Surgery in Stages II and III, with Grades B and C Periodontitis: A Prospective Clinical Trial

[Year:2022] [Month:Supplementary Issue 1] [Volume:13] [Number:S1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:S66 - S71]

Keywords: Bacterial count, Periodontitis, Photodynamic therapy, Photosensitizing agents, Polymerase chain reaction

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2129  |  Open Access | 


Aim: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of surgical periodontal therapy (SurgPT) in conjunction with photodynamic-assisted surgery (PTAS) with SurgPT alone. Materials and methods: A total of 13 participants with stages II and III, with grades B and C periodontitis and contralateral probing pocket depths (PPD) ≥5 mm on at least two adjacent teeth, were randomly assigned to PTAS and SurgPT groups. Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), PPD, and clinical attachment level (CAL) were measured at baseline, 3, and 6 months. Red complex bacteria levels were measured using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at baseline and 3 months. Results: All clinical parameters were reduced significantly in both groups. Intergroup comparison revealed that the PTAS group had a considerably higher PI and GI decrease. However, the difference in reduction of PPD and CAL was not significant at given time intervals. At 3 months, PCR evaluation showed a decrease in levels of red complex bacteria with no intergroup differences. Conclusion: Both the PTAS and SurgPT showed definitive improvement in all parameters. PTAS using indocyanine green (ICG) yielded a resolution of PI and GI, which can be attributed to the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT). Clinical significance: PTAS may be a safe alternative for systemic antibiotics in combination with SurgPT for the management of chronic periodontitis.



Khaled M Alqahtani

Test Item Analysis and its Relevance to a Dental Foundation Course at King Saud University

[Year:2022] [Month:Supplementary Issue 1] [Volume:13] [Number:S1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:S72 - S75]

Keywords: Classroom assessment, Dental courses, Difficulty index, Discrimination index, Distractor analysis, Item analysis

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2141  |  Open Access | 


Aim. To conduct an item analysis of a dental foundation course (biostatistics) taught in the first semester of the foundation year at King Saud University (KSU), Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods: A total of 32 students completed the final examination for a dental foundation course (biostatistics) that is taught in the first semester of the foundation year at KSU. This exam consisted of 30 test items. The test items were evaluated for their level of difficulty, the measure of difficulty index (p-value), power of discrimination as measured by the discrimination index (DI), and distractor analysis. In the data analysis, the test reliability of inter-item consistency, or how strongly the test items are connected was determined using the Kuder–Richardson formula. Results: The average test score was 18; the standard deviation was 6.9, and the standard error of the mean was 2.2. The skewness for the scores was 0.31, which indicates that the distribution was positively skewed. The kurtosis was 1.82, which indicates that the distribution was almost normal. No correlation was found between item DI and the item difficulty level. Conclusion: The item DI and item difficulty level had no relationship, indicating that the test items lacked practical and excellent discriminating power. Clinical significance: Item analysis is a valuable test for determining the accuracy and quality of multiple choice items, and it should be utilized when creating exams and assessments for dentistry students.



Aditi Verma, Geetpriya Kaur, Guljot Singh

Quality of Life among Oral Healthcare Professionals during COVID-19 Pandemic Using WHOQOL-BREF: A Survey

[Year:2022] [Month:Supplementary Issue 1] [Volume:13] [Number:S1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:S76 - S80]

Keywords: COVID-19, Oral care, Oral healthcare professionals, Pandemic, Quality of life

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2133  |  Open Access | 


Aim: The study aimed to examine the quality of life (QOL) among oral healthcare professionals (OHCPs) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in India. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional web-based study was conducted on 138 OHCPs (general dentists/specialists) from public and private sectors in India in July 2021 through emails and WhatsApp using the 26-item World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) tool to assess their QOL. Unpaired t-tests and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were employed to check for the association between the demographic characteristics and the QOL with a p-value <0.05. Results: The overall mean QOL score of the study participants was 75.66 ± 12.4. The environmental domain reported the highest mean score of QOL (94.8), whereas the social relationship domain reported the lowest mean score of QOL (44.5). The type of work significantly affected the QOL scores in three out of four domains: physical (p = 0.04), psychological (p = 0.02), and social relationship domain (p = 0.003). About 68% of study participants felt their QOL was good or very good, while 7% considered it poor or very poor. Conclusion: The QOL of OHCPs has been significantly influenced during the COVID-19 pandemic. Among the four domains, the social relationship domain has been the most severely impacted, which could lead to higher psychological stress for OHCPs while providing dental care to patients. Clinical significance: Like frontline workers, dental professionals are also suffering from increased psychological stress while rendering oral care to patients. Hence, there is an utmost need for wellness programs to be organized to improve the QOL of OHCPs in the country.



Arunav Gogoi, Parichaya Batra, C Preeja, KJ Nisha

Comparative Evaluation of the Efficacy of Pro-Argin-containing Desensitizing Toothpaste vs Mouthwash: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2022] [Month:Supplementary Issue 1] [Volume:13] [Number:S1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:S81 - S86]

Keywords: Dentin desensitizing agents, Dentin hypersensitivity, Mouthwashes

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2120  |  Open Access | 


Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate if Pro-Argin mouthwash is as efficient as Pro-Argin paste at occluding dentinal tubules and reducing dentin hypersensitivity (DH). Materials and methods: The study used 90 dentin disks that were free of enamel and pulp horns. They were divided into three groups of 30 disks each at random: group I: saline-immersed dentin disks, group II: paste-immersed dentin disks, and group III: mouthwash-immersed dentin disks. On the 1st, 15th, and 30th days, specimens from three groups underwent scanning electron microscopic analysis. Results: The lower the occlusion score, the fewer the open dentinal tubules and the better the tubule occlusion. The mean intergroup occlusion scores for the paste and mouthwash groups on days 1, 15, and 30 showed significantly higher dentinal tubule occlusion than the saline group at p < 0.001. The intragroup comparison of mean dentinal tubule occlusion scores on days 1, 15, and 30 using the repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) test revealed no significant differences between time intervals in each study group. Conclusion: The study found that using Pro-Argin mouthwash to occlude dentinal tubules can be a viable option for reducing hypersensitivity. Clinical significance: When translated into clinical practice, this finding can be especially beneficial to patients recovering from periodontal surgery, where brushing with a paste is not recommended in the first postoperative week.



Govindarajan Sujatha, Veeraraghavan V Priya, Saranya Varadarajan

A Bibliometric Analysis of the Published Literature Related to Toothbrush as a Source of DNA

[Year:2022] [Month:Supplementary Issue 1] [Volume:13] [Number:S1] [Pages:9] [Pages No:S87 - S95]

Keywords: Deoxyribonucleic acid, Forensic dentistry, Polymerase chain reaction, Toothbrush

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2103  |  Open Access | 


Aim: The present bibliometric analysis was conducted to assess the articles published on toothbrush as a source of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in order to highlight the importance and role of toothbrushes in forensic dentistry. Materials and methods: Dimensions software was used to search for published literature pertaining to the keywords toothbrush and DNA on 5th February 2022. Two reviewers assessed the articles in terms of year of publication, authors, country of origin, journal of publication, and the affiliated institutions of the authors as well as their collaborations and the most cited publications. Results: The search revealed a total of 10,700 publications between the year 2000 and 2021. The number of publications every year was not uniform with a spike from 2007 to 2008. The United States ranked the highest in terms of publication. Journal of Critical Care had the highest number of publications in this field, Agnes Bouchez and Frederic Rimet from France were the top-ranked authors whereas David Herran from Spain had maximum number of citations. Harvard University topped the list of universities. Conclusion: The present analysis depicts the decline in number of publications related to toothbrush and DNA in recent years. Hence, studies in different populations with larger sample size are needed to determine the exact usefulness of toothbrushes as a source of DNA for identification of a person. Clinical significance: The present analysis provides information on the most cited articles in toothbrush as a source of DNA and gives directions for future research. Also further, DNA obtained from toothbrushes can aid in identifying genetic mutations that could be a tool for determination of risk assessment and early diagnosis of diseases.



Samuel Raj A Gladson, Samyukta Srinivasan, Gokulakannan Ravi, Sreeja Chellaswamy, N Nachiammai Nachiappan, A Harini Priya

Assessment of Gadget Addiction among the South Indian Student Community during the Pandemic: A Survey

[Year:2022] [Month:Supplementary Issue 1] [Volume:13] [Number:S1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:S96 - S99]

Keywords: Addiction, COVID-19, Gadgets, Gaming, Mental health

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2122  |  Open Access | 


Aim: To evaluate the change in the quality of student's life, mindset, and their varied addiction levels before and during the COVID-19 lockdown. Materials and methods: This survey was conducted among the student community involving 487 participants from various courses. The questions were structured in a multiple-choice format and the questionnaire was circulated among the student body through various online forums using Google Forms. The questionnaire consisted of 19 questions apart from the demographic data of the participants, out of which, 18 were close-ended questions and one question was open-ended. The participants were questioned in detail about their lifestyle before and after the lockdown period, change in mindset, gadget addiction, and sleep pattern. The participants were allowed to answer the questionnaire for a month. All the responses were collected and tabulated in an Excel sheet. The tabulated data were later statistically analyzed using SPSS software. Results: In total, 487 persons participated in the survey; 92.6% of the participants agreed to an increase in their screen time during the COVID-19 quarantine. Participants also admitted that the number of hours spent with gadgets among participants was only 2–4 or 4–6 hours before the lockdown to longer hours of mobile usage (6–8 hours and 8–10 hours) during the lockdown. About 58.3% of participants felt that their sleep pattern was adversely affected which has led to 44.8% of the individuals feeling lethargic and sleepy during the daytime. Conclusion: These findings suggest that there is a significant spike in the amount of screen time among the participants. This sudden increase in gadget usage has also been shown to have a negative influence on the individual's physical and psychological well-being by altering their sleep cycle and making them increasingly irritable. Clinical significance: COVID-19 lockdown has brought a paradigm shift in our dependence on technology to perform key tasks in our everyday life. This increase in technological dependency has also resulted in a proportional increase in the number of young adults suffering from a myriad of mental illnesses. It is essential for parents and educational institutions to be aware of the ill effects of gadget addiction, so as to recognize and offer the appropriate help when required.



Merlin Thomas, Leena Shettar

Comparison of Tissue Substitutes with Subepithelial Connective Tissue Graft by Tunnel or Modified Technique in Root Coverage: A Systematic Review

[Year:2022] [Month:Supplementary Issue 1] [Volume:13] [Number:S1] [Pages:7] [Pages No:S100 - S106]

Keywords: Gingival recession, Subepithelial connective tissue graft, Tooth root, Tunnel technique

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2119  |  Open Access | 


Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of soft tissue substitutes, namely acellular dermal matrix (ADM), collagen matrix (CM), and titanium-prepared platelet-rich fibrin (T-PRF) in comparison to subepithelial connective tissue graft (SECTG) by tunnel or modified coronally advanced tunnel technique (MCAT) in root coverage. Materials and methods: A literature search on MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Libraries, Embase and hand-searched journals were covered from January 1999 to August 2020, which investigated the efficacy of soft tissue substitutes in comparison to SECTG by tunnel technique (TUN) or MCAT for root coverage procedures. Only randomized control trials (RCTs) were considered for the comparison. Results: Seven studies were included for qualitative synthesis. SECTG, ADM and T-PRF were more effective for complete/partial root coverage (CRC) which was considered as the primary outcome according to Miller's classification. SECTG showed better results when secondary outcomes were considered. Conclusion: The clinical efficacy of SECTG seemed to be higher in tunnel or MCAT for root coverage. Hence, SECTG can be a better option compared to other substitutes. Clinical significance: Clinicians should be aware that SECTG can be considered as the first choice in root coverage when compared to other soft tissue substitutes. Nevertheless, these substitutes should be considered when there are anatomical variations or in situations where SECTG cannot be opted.



Nivya John, Manoj Shetty, Anuradha Roy, Karishma Ashok, Tarona Azem Subba

Management Protocols of Bleeding Disorders in Implant Dentistry: A Narrative Review

[Year:2022] [Month:Supplementary Issue 1] [Volume:13] [Number:S1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:S107 - S112]

Keywords: Anticoagulants, Bleeding disorders, Dental implants, Dental surgery

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2112  |  Open Access | 


Aim: This review elaborates the significance of the knowledge of bleeding disorders in implant dentistry. Background: Bleeding disorders are the underlying cause of critical bleeding episodes in any type of dental surgery. It has been reported that bleeding disorders damage, or in certain subjects, make dental implant surgery complex. Implant dentists must perceive the ramifications of blood coagulopathies in the treatment of patients. It is of utmost importance for an implant clinician to identify the type of bleeding disorder and the signs and symptoms they present with. Review results: In this article, although there are limited case studies on implant surgeries in bleeding disorders, the common bleeding disorders and how they affect dental implant surgery have been discussed, along with the related postoperative complications, relevant surgical recommendations as well as practical suggestions for the clinicians. Conclusion and clinical significance: The management of the bleeding disorder should include careful planning with hematologists, a good knowledge of the hemostatic agents, and experience in administration of the same.



Anil Kumar Gujjari, Sankeerth Gujjari, Priya Mukherjee, Sheela Kumar Gujjari, Meenakshi Iyer, S Sowmya, KN RaghavendraSwamy

Devise of an Innovative, UV-enabled, and Self-sanitizing Prosthesis Trimming Unit: A Clinical Technique

[Year:2022] [Month:Supplementary Issue 1] [Volume:13] [Number:S1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:S113 - S117]

Keywords: Debris, Handpiece, Inhalation, Prosthesis, Sanitization, Trimming, Ultraviolet

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2117  |  Open Access | 


Aim: The aim of the study is to devise an innovative, ultraviolet (UV) enabled, self-sanitizing prosthesis trimming unit for dental prostheses in order to safeguard the dental operators and technicians from fine material pollutants and prevent nosocomial infection due to cross-contamination. Background: As the prosthesis remains soaked in the saliva, it tends to harbor microbes forming a safe haven for them. The process of trimming, for subsequent adjustments and corrections, makes these contaminated particles from the denture become airborne. The inhalation of the same infects the dental personnel. Therefore, trimming and smoothening of contaminated prostheses is considered a biological hazard, and it requires innovation and development to minimize the same. Technique: A closed unit of 12 × 15 inches Plexi fiber fitted with a straight handpiece and UV light was made for trimming of the prosthesis and later sanitization of the unit. A large transparent lid was hinged to the box from the top. A light-emitting diode (LED) light was used to enhance visibility during trimming. The box was fitted with gloves for the operator to insert their hands to trim the prosthesis with the handpiece inside. An inlet window of 2 × 4 inches covered with a split rubber dam sheet facilitated the placement of the prosthesis inside the unit for trimming. Sanitization of the unit was achieved by switching on an UV light of wavelength 222 nm placed inside the unit for 30 minutes. Conclusion: The unit has been designed to be effective in negating the danger of inhalation of contaminants released during denture trimming. The design helps in preventing aerosol contamination to the staff and cross-contamination to subsequent patients and the environment. Clinical significance: The unit has been developed to decrease aerosol contamination and safeguard the operatory from infections, especially considering the current COVID-19 scenario. The equipment can be effectively used in dental clinics and laboratories. It may be modified to accommodate dental lathes. Microbiological analysis of the unit to evaluate its quantitative efficacy can be further incorporated.


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