An Update on the Use of Cone-beam Computed Tomography in Dentistry
[Year:2022] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:1] [Pages No:95 - 95]
DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1893 | Open Access | How to cite |
Antimicrobial Efficacy of a Novel Irrigant, Nigella–Eugenia Oil Composite against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans
[Year:2022] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:8] [Pages No:96 - 103]
Keywords: Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Eugenia caryophyllus, irrigant, Nigella–eugenia oil composite
DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1902 | Open Access | How to cite |
Aim: The aim of this study was to develop a novel herbal irrigant Nigella–Eugenia oil composite (NEOc) and check its antimicrobial efficacy against Enterobacter faecalis and Candida albicans and compare it with standard chemical irrigants like sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine. Materials and methods: Soxhlet method was chosen to extract the content from Nigella sativa and Eugenia caryophyllus herbs. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)/minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC)/minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) of N. sativa and E. caryophyllus (ethanol extracts) against E. faecalis and C. albicans was determined by well diffusion method. A novel composite NEOc was developed and its antimicrobial activity was evaluated in terms of zone of inhibition around the wells in the inoculated Mueller–Hinton agar (MHA) plates and compared with sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine. Results: About 300 µg/mL of test concentrate was selected as the MIC and MBC/MFC value for the test organism for both N. sativa and E. caryophyllus extracts. Antimicrobial activity of the extracts showed good inhibitory zones. The antimicrobial activity of NEOc against E. faecalis and C. albicans was found maximum of 21 and 22 mm, respectively. The obtained results conformed the synergism behavior of two herbal extracts natively present in the developed composite. The cell viability percentage of the developed NEOc was more than 99% for all the test concentrations indicating its biocompatibility. Conclusion: The developed novel NEOc's antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis and C. albicans was found to be slightly higher than 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine. Clinical significance: The developed novel NEOc have the potential to be used as an alternative to chemical irrigants like sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine and decrease the incidence of endodontic treatment failures resulting from resistant bacteria like E. faecalis and C. albicans.
Development and Evaluation of Silver Nanosystem-based Novel Antimicrobial Dental Stone
[Year:2022] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:104 - 109]
Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Copper sulfate, Dental stone, Disinfectants, Inhibitory zone, Potassium permanganate, Silver nitrate
DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1914 | Open Access | How to cite |
Aim: To find a suitable disinfectant additive with effective antimicrobial activity and physical properties to dental gypsum product. Methods and materials: Design and settings of the study involved three compounds; Silver nitrate (0.3%, 0.5%, 1%); Copper Sulfate (0.5% and 1%), and Potassium Permanganate (0.5% and 1%). Antimicrobial properties, setting time, compressive strength (1 hour and 24 hours) and reproduction of surface details were evaluated. Standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans were used in the study. Dental stone was mixed with test compounds and plain water (control) were sampled in punch well on agar plates which were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Mean of Minimum Inhibitory Zone (MIZ) in mm, was measured at 24 hours. The setting time was measured by standard indentation, Compressive strength using Universal testing machine and reproduction of surface details as per ADA guidelines. Statistical analysis of the data was done using one-way ANOVA with Tukey's post hoc test using Graph pad Prism Version 5. p-value of < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Silver nitrate showed excellent antimicrobial activity against all the microorganisms. The setting time with 0.5% Silver nitrate was between 30 and 34 minutes, the compressive strength was found to be greater than the control and the surface details were acceptable. Thus, 0.5% silver nitrate was reported as an alternative disinfectant for gypsum products. Conclusion: An amount of 0.5% silver nitrate could be safely suggested as suitable disinfectant additive for gypsum product. Clinical significance: The antimicrobial property imparted to the stone reduces the risk of cross-infection among dental personnel, patients and lab personnel from bacterial, viral, and fungal microorganisms that remain even viable after cleansing and disinfecting the impressions.
Clinical Evaluation of an Essential Oil Intraoral Spray for Treatment of Dry Mouth
[Year:2022] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:110 - 115]
Keywords: Desensitization, Essential oil, Propolis, Xerostomia
DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1916 | Open Access | How to cite |
Aim: To assess the effect of essential oil intraoral spray for dry mouth. Composition of spray: essential oil (peppermint oil 1 mL), propolis (1.5 mL), xylitol (700 mg), ethyl alcohol (10 mL), and water (up to 50 mL). Materials and methods: A total of 30 patients with dry mouth symptoms were selected for the study (study group). Clinical parameters such as gingival index, plaque index, and visual analog scale (VAS) for xerostomia and desensitization were recorded. A total of 30 patients were selected for control group. Two intraoral sprays were formulated one for each group. The results of both groups were then analyzed. Results: Statistical difference was obtained in the various parameters between the two groups. Mean gingival index (GI) score in control group at baseline was found to be 0.489 + 1.242 and postoperative it was 0.271 + 0.109. There was a statistically significant difference in mean GI score between baseline and postoperative at 5% significance level (p = 0.001). Mean salivary rate (SR) score in control group at baseline was found to be 2.400 + 1.242 and postoperative it was 2.066 + 0.961. There was no statistically significant difference in mean SR score between baseline and postoperative at 5% significance level (p = 0.298). Conclusion: Essential oil and propolis spray are effective in improving oral health of patients suffering from dry mouth and dentinal hypersensitivity. It also ensured better patient compliance. Hence, encouraged them to use as prescribed. Clinical significance: Essential oil intraoral spray has all the advantages of promoting oral health by treating xerostomia, dentinal hypersensitivity, and less plaque accumulation; thus, improving the overall health.
Remineralizing Potential of Various Commercially Available Dentifrices on Artificial Enamel Lesions
[Year:2022] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:116 - 120]
Keywords: Demineralization, Dentifrices, Fluorides, Polarized light microscope, Remineralization
DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1915 | Open Access | How to cite |
Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine the remineralizing potentiality of artificial carious lesions in primary teeth after application of three commercially available dentifrices using pH cycling. Materials and methods: A total of 24 human primary teeth were randomly divided into three groups. Group I: Clinpro Tooth Creme, Group II: Enafix, and Group III: Amflor. All the teeth in each group were demineralized for 96 hours, sectioned longitudinally using hard tissue microtome and subjected to pH cycling for 7 days. The specimens were viewed under polarized light microscope, depth of demineralization and remineralization was recorded using Micap Microview analyzer software. Results: The results were analyzed using one way-ANOVA test. All the test groups showed statistically significant decrease in mean depth of lesion 21.62±9.41 µm, 20.75±14.61 µm. 26.13±17.84 µm for group I, II, and III, respectively. However, no statistical difference was noticed on intergroup comparison. Conclusion: All the tested dentifrices demonstrated remineralizing potential which was elicited by decrease in the lesion depth. Amflor showed better results than other remineralizing agents. Clinical significance: To emphasize the importance of minimal invasive treatment of incipient carious lesion by remineralizing agents. Opting for remineralizing agents at the early stage can save the time, money and manpower. Usage of dentifrices containing remineralizing agents shown long-term beneficial effects on early caries lesions. The present study demonstrated that all the tested agents can be used to induce remineralization of early enamel lesions, so that complex invasive treatments can be prevented in near future.
Evaluation of Self-reported Unmet Dental Needs in Primary Health Care in Jazan, Saudi Arabia: A Cross-sectional Survey
[Year:2022] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:121 - 126]
Keywords: Acceptability, Accessibility, Availability, Dental needs, Primary health care
DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1909 | Open Access | How to cite |
Aim: The study aimed to estimate the level of self-reported unmet dental needs of patients reporting to primary healthcare dental clinic (PHDC) in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. Additionally, the impact and relation of geographical location, socioeconomic status, and other risk factors were also evaluated for the population considered. Materials and methods: The questionnaires, divided into three sections, were administered to 400 patients in the Jazan region, comprised of 301 males and 99 females. While the first section dealt with the geographical location, demographic and socioeconomic status of the population, the second estimated the level of self-reported unmet dental needs of the patients in PHDC for two different time periods, last 1 year and the last 3 months. The third section was an assessment for the reasons for unmet dental needs categorized as accessibility, availability, and acceptability. The results were analyzed with Chi-square and logistic regression to identify the association between the level of self-reporting for unmet dental needs and the factors that affect their level. Results: This present study reports 61.3% and 67.6% of the population were categorized into unmet dental needs for the last 12 and the last 3 months, respectively. The population with unmet dental needs has a significant association with PHDC accessibility factors (p = 0.021) and patient acceptability factors (p = 0.019). However, no association with dental services availability (p = 0.055) was observed. The geographic location, education level, and occupation were significantly associated with higher unmet dental need levels. On the contrary, age, gender, and patient income were not associated with unmet dental need levels in the population assessed. Conclusion: Lack of accessibility to PHDC, transportation, acceptability, patient understanding, and level of education are the contributing factors as observed and reported by the population evaluated responsible for the high level of unmet dental needs. Clinical significance: Accessibility and feasibility of PHDC to the local residents is an integral step in addressing the requirement of the population. Further, responsibility lies with the dentist to educate and emphasize the importance of OHC, its influence on overall health and drive the need for regular dental clinic visits within the population.
Evaluation of Cytocompatibility of Thermopolymerized Denture Base Copolymer Containing a Novel Ring-opening Oxaspiro Comonomer
[Year:2022] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:127 - 132]
Keywords: Cell viability, Copolymer, Cytocompatibility, Cytotoxicity, Ring-opening
DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1901 | Open Access | How to cite |
Aim and objective: To evaluate the cytocompatibility of a novel denture base copolymer processed with 3,9-dimethylene-1,5,7,11- tetraoxaspiro[5,5]undecane (DMTOSU) comonomer using human keratinocytes (HKCs) and gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) by tetrazolium assay. Materials and methods: The specimens were grouped based on the composition of the resultant polymer and curing regimen employed. Nine disk-shaped specimens per group were polymerized by one of the following curing regimens. GCW: plain poly (methyl methacrylate) [P(MMA)] polymerized by short curing cycle in water-bath without DMTOSU; GTW: P(MMA-Co-DMTOSU)W copolymer polymerized with 20 wt% DMTOSU at 70°C for 2 h followed by short curing cycle in water bath; GTA: P(MMA-Co-DMTOSU)A copolymer polymerized with 20 wt% DMTOSU at 60°C for 45 min followed by 130°C for 20 min in an autoclave. Human keratinocytes and HGFs were employed to evaluate cell viability (CV%) by elution method through tetrazolium assay. Results: A statistically significant difference was obtained (p < 0.05) among the groups with both the cell types. The ascending order of cytocompatibility is GCW < GTW < GTA with the CV% > 70%. Conclusion: The novel P(MMA-Co-DMTOSU) denture copolymer is found to be more cytocompatible with HKC and HGF than the P(MMA). Clinical significance: The novel P(MMA-Co-DMTOSU) denture base copolymer cytocompatible to HKCs and HGFs might bypass polymerization shrinkage and food accumulation at denture–tissue interface. Therefore, this copolymer is also anticipated to prevent oral malodor and stomatitis due to good tissue adaptability and dimensional accuracy.
Evaluating the Quality of Root Canal Obturation Performed by Undergraduate Dental Students: A Retrospective Clinical Study
[Year:2022] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:133 - 137]
Keywords: Dental radiography, Endodontic treatment, Endodontist, Root canal obturation, Undergraduate dental students
DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1906 | Open Access | How to cite |
Aim and objective: The aim of the study was to assess the quality of obturation performed by undergraduate dental students in the endodontic clinics at the Department of Conservative Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Materials and methods: In this retrospective study, records of 400 patients were randomly selected for whom root canal treatment was performed by 4th and 5th year undergraduate dental students between academic year 2016 to 2018, and in 2019, an intraoral periapical (IOPA) radiographs were evaluated by an experienced endodontist. These radiographs were taken in straight (head on) technique and shift/SLOB (Same Lingual and Opposite Buccal) technique (when needed). Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using SPSS software and Chi-square test. The Statistical significance level was set at P = 0.05. Results: This study showed that a total 149 patients were treated by 4th BDS students, in which around 63.5% had done adequate obturation and 36.5% suffered from some or the other problems related to obturation. In comparison, 5th year BDS students had performed endodontic treatment in 251 patients, 71% of them were adequately obturated and 29% had inadequate obturation. There was a statistically significant difference regarding the length of the root canal obturation (P=0.001). The frequency of adequate obturation was significantly higher in anterior teeth compared to premolar and molar teeth. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, it was shown that more training was required for both 4th and 5th year undergraduate dental students, as most of them had absence of homogenization in their obturation and as well as underfilling of the root canal system. Adequate training is necessary for the students at the preclinical and clinical levels under close supervision to improve the quality of root canal obturation. Clinical significance: This study will help in evaluating dental students who are performing the endodontic treatment and any incoherence that exists can be dealt with better teaching approaches. In addition, this study will enable us to know what improvements are required, so that better equipment, as well as novel techniques in endodontics, can be used for the overall development of students in pursuit of excellence.
Comparative Analysis of Retention and Bite Force in Completely Edentulous Patients with Torus Palatinus Restored with Two Different Denture Designs
[Year:2022] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:138 - 143]
Keywords: Bite force, Denture designs, Retention, Torus palatinus
DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1904 | Open Access | How to cite |
Aim and objective: This study aimed to investigate the retention and bite force in completely edentulous patients with torus palatinus rehabilitated with two designs, one with window to accommodate the tori which is later modified to a horseshoe-shaped complete denture. Materials and methods: A total of 66 patients, with tori requiring complete denture, were included in the study. The retention was measured during 3 months follow-up with both designs. The denture bases with different designs were subjected for evaluation of retention using a Handheld Digital Push-Pull Force Gauge Meter to evaluate the retentive values of the denture bases. The bite force was measured at the first molar region by a custom-built occlusal force meter at 1 week, 1 month and 3 months intervals during follow-up. Results: The results of the study showed that there was not much significant difference between the two denture designs in terms of their retention. The mean biting force was statistically significant different between both the designs, with the horseshoe design showing higher values compared to the denture with window. Conclusion: Among the two designs, retention values were approximately the same with both the designs and there was a significant difference in bite force values with the horseshoe-shaped denture. Clinical significance: Some intraoral anatomical features can negatively affect certain patients and complicate prosthodontic intervention. In this study, the horse shoe-shaped complete denture proved to be an effective treatment option compared to the denture with the window.
Evaluation of the Perception of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery among Other Dental Specialties in King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia
[Year:2022] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:144 - 147]
Keywords: Dentistry, Knowledge, Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, Specialty perception
DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1900 | Open Access | How to cite |
Aim and objective: To find out if junior dental students perceive OMFS as a subject of importance in the dental school as well as the stand of other dental specialties. Materials and methods: 531 students of 2nd, 3rd, 4th years, were selected from King Abdulaziz University (KAAU), college of dentistry, for data collection. The senior years of 5th, 6th, and internship were excluded. A survey was conducted, which consisted of questions related to participants’ demographic characteristics and their career priorities. Participants’ responses were analyzed using the Chi-square test and was validated with Cronbach's alpha and binary regression analysis. Results: The findings showed that most of the students perceived general dentistry as the most important subject of study (76%), while, Orthodontics and OMFS came second (60%). On the contrary; forensic dentistry and oral radiology were found to be significantly under-estimated (20% and 26%, respectively), as the majority of the students found those subjects not to be of any importance. Cronbach's Alpha test proved that the obtained results were reliable results between the variables. Conclusion: Dental students perceived OMFS as an important topic among other dental specialties, while perceived forensic dentistry and oral radiology as of not important. However, it is clear that junior dental students considered general dentistry to be the main area of focus and interest. Such might indicate that precollege orientation program is needed to clarify the importance of different specialties as well as the future career line afterword. Clinical significance: The comprehension of different dentistry lines is needed among dental students. Such can be accomplished via pre and intra-college orientation programs.
An In Vitro Evaluation of Antibacterial and Smear Layer Removal Efficacy of Silver Nanoparticles as Final Irrigant against Enterococcus Faecalis
[Year:2022] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:7] [Pages No:148 - 154]
Keywords: Confocal laser scanning microscopy, Enterococcus faecalis, EDTA, Nanoparticles, Scanning electron microscopy, Sodium hypochlorite
DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1913 | Open Access | How to cite |
Aim and objective: The aim and objective of this study is to assess the antibacterial and smear layer removal efficacy of silver nanoparticles as final irrigant against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) using confocal laser scanning and scanning electron microscope, respectively. Materials and methods: Forty single-rooted mandibular premolar teeth were instrumented till Protaper Gold F3 after decoronation. E. faecalis were inoculated in all samples and they were divided into five groups based on the irrigant used into group A= silver nanoparticle (AgNp), group B= AgNp + 17% ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), group C= 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), group D= NaOCl 5.25% +17% EDTA, group E= Distilled water. After irrigation roots were split longitudinally and assessed for confocal and SEM. Results: Groups C and D showed the greatest reduction in the percentage of live bacteria with no significant difference between them. Groups A and B has shown reduction in live bacterial percentage but not greater than groups C and D. Group E showed the greatest percentage of live bacteria. In smear layer analysis, greatest amount of smear layer was found in groups C and E in the coronal, middle, and apical third with no significant difference between them. However, greater smear layer reduction was seen in groups B and D. Group A has shown reduction in smear layer score which is greater than group C with significant difference between them. Conclusion: Irrigation with NaOCl (group C), NaOCl + 17% EDTA (group D) showed greatest reduction in live bacteria followed by AgNp +17% EDTA (Group B) and AgNp (group A) whereas greater smear layer removal is seen with irrigation with AgNp + 17%EDTA (group B) and NaOCl +17% EDTA (group D) followed by AgNp (group A), NaOCl (group C). Clinical significance: Based on the results from this study, AgNp irrigant has some antibacterial and smear layer removal capability. This study shows the possible potential of using nanoparticles as a single irrigant which can have dual action of antibacterial and smear layer removal efficacy.
Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices about HIV: A Pilot Study among Tunisian Dentists
[Year:2022] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:155 - 160]
Keywords: Attitudes, Dentists, HIV, Knowledge, Practices, Questionnaire
DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1919 | Open Access | How to cite |
Aim and objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Tunisian dentists about HIV/AIDS. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional pilot study was carried out on Tunisian dentists using an online survey. The questionnaire included 34 questions investigating knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the participants. Knowledge attitudes and practices were assessed according to three different scales. Results: A total of 234 dentists participated in the study. This study showed that 33% of the respondents demonstrated sufficient level of knowledge and 36% of them demonstrated good level. About 90% of them showed excellent practices. In addition, 54% of the participants had neutral attitudes and 42% had positive attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS. A significant negative correlation between age and knowledge score was found (p = 0.001). A significant association between knowledge score and the period experience less than 5 years (p = 0.022) was found. Conclusion: Tunisian dentists had good knowledge and adequate practices about HIV. About a half of the participants expressed hesitation in treating patients with HIV/AIDS. Dental and therapeutic continued education programs are needed to improve their attitudes. Clinical significance: Good knowledge, attitudes, and practices about HIV in the dental setting allows to ensure an adequate dental care for people living with HIV/AIDS and to enhance infection control and safety for both patients and dental staff.
Assessment of Oral Health-related Quality of Life among Patients Who have Undergone Orthodontic Treatment in Navi Mumbai
[Year:2022] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:161 - 165]
Keywords: OHRQoL, Oral health-related quality of life, Orthodontic treatment, Questionnaire study
DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1908 | Open Access | How to cite |
Aim and objective: The study aimed to assess the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among patients who have undergone orthodontic treatment at a dental institute in Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was carried out composed of two sets of OHIP-14 [Oral Health Impact Profile] questionnaires, former during the first month of treatment and the latter after the termination of the said treatment. In total 153 individuals between the age group of 15–30 years old who were eligible and met the inclusion and exclusion criteria from a dental institute in Navi Mumbai from June 2017 to May 2018 participated in the study. Results: All fields of the OHIP-14 questionnaire namely functional limitations, physical pain, psychological discomfort, physical disabilities, psychological disabilities, social disabilities, and handicapped showed a highly significant decrease in the OHRQoL score post orthodontic therapy [p< 0.001].The highest decline with 78.45% of individuals was noted in the field of physical pain. Conclusion: Orthodontic treatment can have a great positive influence on the quality of life. Although‚ orthodontic treatment might be associated with some problems and discomforts at the beginning and during the procedure but by the completion of the treatment, all of the quality of life domains show improvement. Clinical significance: This information from this study can be used for “informed consent,” which may increase patients’ cooperation as they are aware of what is to be expected during orthodontic treatment.
Influence of Disinfectants Use on Removable Oral Prosthesis: An In Vitro Study
[Year:2022] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:166 - 171]
Keywords: Denture base resin, dimensional stability, infection control, microorganisms, removable prosthesis
DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1910 | Open Access | How to cite |
Aim and objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the dimensional stability of heat cured acrylic denture base resin before and after disinfecting with different disinfectants. Materials and methods: Seventy heat cured acrylic samples were made from a preformed stainless steel metal die of dimensions 65×10×3 mm. The linear dimensions were measured before and after immersion (24 hours) in six different disinfectants with an electronic digital vernier caliper. The data was analyzed statistically using paired t-test and one-way ANOVA, Dunnette T-test. Results: It was found that the heat cure acrylic samples did not produce any statistical changes (p > 0.05) in their linear dimension, upon immersion in six different disinfectant solutions. Conclusion: It was found that all the disinfectants showed some amount of linear changes, but statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). Therefore, the present study strongly recommends standard disinfection protocol for all removable oral prosthesis used intra-orally to combat virulent microorganisms. Clinical significance: Acrylic resins are most widely used for denture prosthesis for patients with missing teeth. Procedures like adjustment and denture repair produce fine particles that can be hazardous to the dental professional. It is very important to disinfect the denture to prevent cross-contamination against virulent pathogens to avoid air-borne infections. So it is necessary to know the physical changes in acrylic resin caused due to immersion in potent biocidal agents. Owing to the porous nature of denture base resin there is inherent property to absorb water and likely to undergo dimensional changes.
Management of Facial Subcutaneous Emphysema during Third Molar Surgery: A Case Report
[Year:2022] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:172 - 175]
Keywords: Oral subcutaneous emphysema, Oral surgery complications, Third molar extraction
DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1907 | Open Access | How to cite |
Aim and objective: Aim of this case report is to illustrate a rare subcutaneous emphysema during third molar extraction. Background: Third molar extraction is a common procedure in oral surgery. Common complications that may occur after the surgical procedure include bleeding, pain, swelling, and trismus. Subcutaneous emphysema in an unusual complication during dental extraction and it could lead to life-threatening situations. Case description: In this report, a 26-year-old female patient experienced a facial subcutaneous emphysema, occurred in a few seconds during the surgical extraction of an impacted lower left third molar performed by the use of a high-speed turbine. The patient showed a normal mouth opening but an impossibility to fully open the left eye; there was no pain or breathing difficulties. A manual reduction of the emphysematous zone was performed. Amoxicillin 875 mg with clavulanic acid 125 mg in tablets every 12 h for 6 days was prescribed; 4 mg of intramuscular betamethasone (Bentelan, Defiante Farm Unipessoal LDA, Funchal, Portugal) were injected locally at the intervention site, and 80 mg of ketoprofen every 8 hours in case of pain, were administered after surgery; the patient was observed for 4 hours then allowed to leave the hospital. Follow-up visits were scheduled at 1, 3, and 6 days after surgery. The healing was obtained in 6 days. Conclusion: The prevention of subcutaneous emphysema requires minimal invasive surgery avoiding the use of high-speed air-turbine and flaps should be minimal elevated and properly retracted by an expert operator. Even if subcutaneous emphysema is self-limiting and usually heals in 7–10 days, its prevention and early and accurate diagnosis are essential to avoid complications or life-threatening conditions. Clinical significance: The procedures described in this case report may be of clinical significance in the knowledge, prevention, and treatment of subcutaneous emphysema, a potentially life-threatening condition.
Influence of Platelet Concentrates on Postextraction Socket Healing: A Literature Review
[Year:2022] [Month:March-April] [Volume:13] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:176 - 180]
Keywords: Extraction, Platelet concentrates, Platelet-rich fibrin, Platelet-rich plasma, Socket preservation
DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1899 | Open Access | How to cite |
Socket healing after extraction of teeth leads to a significant decrease in residual bone in both vertical and horizontal dimensions. This dimensional loss of bone volume poses a challenge when replacing these teeth. Implant placement and grafting procedures include the use of platelet concentrates. Platelets play a role in socket healing. Autologous blood derivatives have a high concentration of platelets. Hence, they have been used to preserve and correct defects due to loss of bone volume after extraction. The use of bioactive materials started with fibrin glue and now includes two generation of platelet products comprising various subtypes. Bioactive materials such as platelet concentrates were first used to prevent and control hemorrhage in surgical procedures. The platelet concentrates are categorized based on their preparation protocols and concentration of leukocytes and platelets. This review article aims to summarize the classification, applications, efficacy, indications, and benefits of platelet concentrates.