World Journal of Dentistry

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2021 | November-December | Volume 12 | Issue 6

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Parag V Patil, Gargi S Sarode, Namrata Sengupta

Prolonged Use of Face Mask and Future Concerns

[Year:2021] [Month:November-December] [Volume:12] [Number:6] [Pages:2] [Pages No:433 - 434]

Keywords: Coronavirus disease-2019, Erythropoiesis, Face mask, Hypoxia

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1849  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


There are certain professions, which demand every day long time and continuous use of face mask. Such professions mainly include doctors, nurses, paramedical staff, police personnel, etc. With the starting of the second wave of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the anticipated third wave, the duration of wearing face mask will also extend for a significant period of time. Hence, a strong possibility of prolonged and chronic hypoxia is expected to occur in the aforementioned group of population. Hence, there is a need to envisage the chronic effects of long-term usage of face mask on the normal physiology of humans. In the present paper, we enlisted futuristic consequences that could be associated with this pragmatic proposition. As face mask usage will continue for years together, efforts were made to provide a rational remedial measure to avoid such consequences.



Reham M Abdallah, Neven S Aref

Curcumin Containing Soft Liner as an Alternative Treatment Modality for Oral Candidiasis

[Year:2021] [Month:November-December] [Volume:12] [Number:6] [Pages:6] [Pages No:435 - 440]

Keywords: Antifungal activity, Curcumin, Oral candidiasis, Soft liner, Surface roughness

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1867  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: Recently, herbal treatment has been validated to be a safe and effective alternative to antimicrobial drugs since it has minimal or no complications. Consequently, this study was conducted to evaluate the antifungal activity of soft liner/curcumin formulation considering its surface roughness, and tensile bond strength to the denture base. Materials and methods: Ethanolic extract of curcumin was prepared in a concentration of 10%. The curcumin solution was blended with the soft liner liquid in ratios of 10 and 20 v/v%. Two experimental groups were considered besides the control (unmodified liner). A total number of 90 specimens was prepared for evaluating antifungal activity, surface roughness, and tensile bond strength of the modified soft liner to the denture base resin. ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests were used for the statistical analysis at a level of significance of 0.05. Results: 20 v/v% curcumin-modified soft liner exhibited a significant decrease in surface roughness compared with the unmodified liner. Both experimental ratios of curcumin; 10 and 20 v/v%, significantly enhanced both tensile bond strength of the liner to the denture base and antifungal activity. Conclusion: Curcumin has the qualities of a natural potent antifungal agent against oral candidiasis paired with denture soft liners. Moreover, its positive impact on surface roughness reduction and the increase in adhesion potential of the soft liner to the denture base has been verified. Clinical significance: The incorporation of curcumin into the denture soft liner seems to be a better alternative for oral candidiasis treatment to the incorporation of conventional antimicrobial drug regarding its antifungal activity, adhesion to the denture base, and surface roughness.



Shivanaikar Sachin, Faizuddin Mohamed, Bhat Kishore, Vijaya Kumar, D'souza Neevan, Aruna Ganganna

Effect of Low-dose Aspirin on Neutrophil Apoptosis in Periodontitis: An Immunohistochemical Study

[Year:2021] [Month:November-December] [Volume:12] [Number:6] [Pages:5] [Pages No:441 - 445]

Keywords: Apoptosis, Aspirin, Neutrophil, Periodontitis

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1879  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: A growing body of research today suggests that periodontitis is due to the failure of resolution pathways to restore homeostasis. Resolution is an active phenomenon of suppressing inflammation once its main objective of eliminating pathogens is achieved. Neutrophil apoptosis is an important step in promoting resolution. In chronic periodontitis, neutrophils linger for a long time in inflamed connective tissue and cause tissue destruction. Aspirin, a widely used anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombogenic drug, is known to cause neutrophil apoptosis by synthesizing aspirin-triggered lipoxin (15epiLXA4) a potent pro-resolving lipid mediator. This immunohistochemical investigation is designed to study the effect of low-dose aspirin therapy on neutrophil apoptosis in the gingival biopsies of patients suffering from periodontitis. Materials and methods: The study population consisted of 30 periodontitis patients who were divided into two groups of 15 each as test group and control group. Test group patients were on low-dose aspirin (75 mg/150 mg) therapy for clinical management of class 1 and class 2 functional capacity cardiovascular disease. Periodontal parameters like plaque index (PI), bleeding index (BI), probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were recorded, gingival biopsies were obtained from all patients for quantitative analysis of neutrophil apoptosis by immunohistochemistry using p53 as a marker of apoptosis. Chi-square/Fisher's exact test was used to find the significance of study parameters on a categorical scale between two groups. Results: Results indicated that there was a decrease in PPD and CAL and a marginal increase in neutrophil apoptosis in the test group in comparison with a control group. Conclusion: Low-dose aspirin therapy may induce neutrophil apoptosis and improve PPD and CAL. Hence, it is presumed that it has the potential to be used as a host-modulating agent in the clinical management of periodontitis. Clinical significance: The low-dose aspirin could be used as a host-modulating agent in the management of periodontitis. Key messages: Increase apoptosis of neutrophils in the gingival biopsies of periodontitis patients who are on long-term low-dose aspirin therapy for CVD indicates that low-dose aspirin could be a potential host modality agent in the treatment of chronic periodontitis.



Nithin V Joy, Hurkadle Jyothikiran, Nagasundar Rao Raghunath

Comparison of Mini-implant-supported Mandibular Canine Retraction with and without Submucosal Injection of Platelet-rich Plasma: A Split-mouth Study

[Year:2021] [Month:November-December] [Volume:12] [Number:6] [Pages:7] [Pages No:446 - 452]

Keywords: Accelerated orthodontics, Canine retraction, Mini-implant-supported retraction, Orthodontic tooth movement, Platelet-rich plasma, Split-mouth study

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1878  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: To compare the differences in the rate of implant-supported individual canine retraction, with and without the administration of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Materials and methods: Fifteen individuals who required mandibular 1st premolar extractions as part of their orthodontic therapy were selected in this split-mouth study. After the initial case strap-up followed by alignment and leveling stage using MBT 0.022″ appliance, to evaluate the effect of PRP on orthodontic tooth movement, the individual canine retraction was carried out on both the intervention and control side using the same NiTi Closed Coil Springs using a retraction force magnitude of 150 g measured using a Dontrix gauge. In the present study, instead of taking the conventional molar anchorage for retraction, mini-implants were utilized to prevent any mesial movement of posterior teeth (anchor loss). At the same appointment, injectable PRP was derived from the patient's own blood and was administered submucosally in the lingual mucosa and attached gingiva of canine and extraction site of the first premolar on the intervention side. Measurements for the determination of the rate of canine retraction were performed by direct technique from pre-canine retraction (T0) and post-canine retraction (T1) dental models with the help of a Vernier caliper digital instrument. The rate of canine retraction was evaluated and put through statistical analysis. Results: The mean rate of canine retraction for the PRP group and control group was 0.87 ± 0.12 and 0.7 ± 0.13 mm/month, respectively. The paired difference in the rates of the canine retraction was 0.17067 mm/month, which was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The individual canine retraction was observed to be 1.24 times efficient in the PRP group compared with the control group. The effect of PRP administration on the rate of tooth movement at different intervals of the canine retraction process needs to be evaluated in future studies. Clinical significance: Minimally invasive techniques to speed up orthodontic treatment are the need of the hour as more individuals wish for a shorter duration of orthodontic therapy as well as not ignoring the positive effects of the same with respect to periodontal health, dental caries, and patient compliance.



Nisa T Ul, Mousumi Goswami, Manisha L Sharma

Incidental Findings on Cone-beam Computed Tomography in the Maxillofacial Region of Pediatric Patients: A Retrospective Study

[Year:2021] [Month:November-December] [Volume:12] [Number:6] [Pages:5] [Pages No:453 - 457]

Keywords: Cone-beam computed tomographic, Clinical indications, Incidental findings, Pediatric patients

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1875  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: This study retrospectively evaluated the prevalence, type, and location of incidental findings (IFs) in the maxillofacial region of pediatric cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) scans with different sizes of the field of view (FOV). Methods and materials: One hundred and forty CBCT scans of 7–18 years of patients carried out from February 2016 to June 2019 were obtained from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and retrospectively reviewed. The relevant findings were further categorized under airway, bony findings, congenital findings, endo lesions, orthodontic findings, dental developmental, and perio lesions. These findings were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: For all statistical tests, the value of p = 0.05 was set as a statistical significance level. Among 140 patients, 75% of CBCT scans were performed between the age-group of 13 and 18 years, and the majority (35%) were taken with a single quadrant maxilla. The total IFs reported were 72.2% among the maximum were for orthodontic findings (23.8%) and least were for congenitally missing teeth (1.4%). Conclusion: This study underscores the need to thoroughly search for clinically significant IFs within and beyond the region of interest for all CBCT volumes of data in children and assess for timely intervention. Clinical significance: This study helps us to identify clinically significant IFs in children which will allow for early interventions, thereby strengthening the rationale of preventive pediatric dentistry.



Yashwant Ingale, Gargi S Sarode, Namrata Sengupta

Epithelial Thickness and Mouth Opening Negatively Correlates with the Burning Sensation of the Oral Cavity: A Pilot Clinicopathological Study

[Year:2021] [Month:November-December] [Volume:12] [Number:6] [Pages:5] [Pages No:458 - 462]

Keywords: Burning sensation, Epithelial thickness, Fibrosis, Mouth opening, Oral submucous fibrosis

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1874  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objectives: The present study aimed to quantify the burning sensation in oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) patients and correlated then with epithelial atrophy, degree of fibrosis, and mouth opening. Materials and methods: Total 53 OSMF cases without ulcerations and vesicle formation were recruited in the present study. The severity of burning sensation of the oral cavity was determined by a 10-mm visual analog scale (VAS, numeric scale type), in which 0 demonstrates no pain and 10 shows severe intolerable pain. The inter-incisal distance was calculated using Vernier caliper while the epithelial thickness and fibrosis grades were evaluated histopathologically under the light microscope. Results: The mean VAS score in OSMF patients observed was 4.43 ± 1.53. A weak negative correlation was observed between VAS score and epithelial thickness (r = −0.245) as well as VAS score and mouth opening (r = −0.431). The epithelial thickness values were correlated with the mouth opening from OSMF patients. With regard to the grade of fibrosis, the VAS score was maximum in advanced stages (6.81 ± 0.6) and showed decreasing trend in intermediate (4.44 ± 0.5) and early stages (2.66 ± 0.48). There were statistically significant differences in the VAS score in all the grades of fibrosis (p < 0.00001). Conclusion: The burning sensation increases with a decrease in the epithelial thickness, mouth opening, and fibrosis in the connective tissue stroma. Since intra-epithelial nerve endings are the main carriers of burning sensation, maintaining the disturbed homeostasis of oral epithelium with the restoration of epithelial thickness could mitigate the burning sensation in OSMF patients. Clinical significance: The results of the present study showed that the burning sensation in OSMF patients negatively correlates with the epithelial thickness. Moreover, increased fibrosis was associated with increasing the burning sensation. Maintaining epithelial homeostasis with medicinal intervention could probably help in reducing the burning sensation of the oral cavity in OSMF patients.



Shivani S Desai, Adnan Calcuttawala, Dipti Patil, Nilesh Deshmane, Sharad Desai

Efficacy of Low-cost Intraoral Prosthesis in the Era of Modern Radiation Therapy in Oral Cancer Patients

[Year:2021] [Month:November-December] [Volume:12] [Number:6] [Pages:6] [Pages No:463 - 468]

Keywords: Intraoral prosthesis, Oral cancer, Radiation therapy, Radiation-induced oral mucositis

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1880  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: To fabricate a customized intraoral prosthesis (IOP) and determine its dosimetric, clinical, and economic impact in oral cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy (RT). Materials and methods: Intraoral prosthesis was made using routine chairside and laboratory techniques using alginate, dental stone, and heat cure acrylic resin. Modifications in the IOP were made according to the specific case. Six patients with head and neck cancers (HNC) involving either of the jaws, planned to receive either adjuvant or definitive RT with the presence of one or more risk factors of developing severe acute radiation-induced toxicities were enrolled in this study. Results: With the use of a customized IOP during radiation treatment, an improvement in radiation-induced oral mucositis (RIOM) was observed from grade III to grade I. There was a significant reduction in the radiation dose received by normally involved structures of the oral cavity. The minimal cost of the fabrication of IOP negates the cost involved in the management of severe grade RIOM and its complications. Conclusion: Fabrication of a low-cost customized IOP in oral cancer patients undergoing RT is feasible and its use with modern techniques of RT planning and delivery can reduce the doses to the normal tissues in the oral cavity, thereby reducing the severity of RIOM in patients with cancers of the oral cavity. Clinical significance: Radiation therapy has significant acute side effects like mucositis, oral ulceration, and impaired taste, which increases morbidity leading to multiple breaks in the treatment. Also, the negative psychological impact of these side effects causes them to discontinue the treatment, thus worsening the disease outcome. We present a study on the fabrication of a custom-made, and affordable IOP and its efficacy in decreasing the severity of acute side effects of RT.



Soumya L Surabhilakshan, Anupama S Gopinath, Sam Joseph, Varun Kumar, Shiji Dinakaran, Anulekh Babu

Comparative Evaluation of Fluoride Release and Recharge of Zirconia-reinforced, Resin-modified, and Conventional Glass Ionomer Cements

[Year:2021] [Month:November-December] [Volume:12] [Number:6] [Pages:5] [Pages No:469 - 473]

Keywords: Anticariogenic, Fluoride, Glass ionomer, Release and recharge, Zirconia

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1877  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: To quantitatively assess and compare the fluoride release and recharge of zirconia-reinforced, resin-modified, and conventional glass ionomer cement. Materials and methods: Fifteen disk-shaped pellets having dimension 5 × 3 mm were made in zirconia-reinforced (Zirconomer improved, Shofu), resin-modified (GC Gold label LC), and conventional glass ionomer (GC Gold label) cements concurring to the manufacturer's instruction. Each pellet was individually dipped in 10 mL deionized water in an air-tight container for 24 hours. After 24 hours, the specimens were removed and the elutes were collected. This procedure was repeated daily. The quantity of fluoride ions released in the solution was analyzed after 24 hours, 7th day, and 15th day. After 15 days, all samples from each group were recharged with 1.23% APF gel for 4 minutes and were reimmersed in 10 mL of fresh deionized water. Fluoride analysis was carried out on 16th, 22nd, and 30th day by a digital ion analyzer having a specific fluoride ion electrode. Results: The amount of fluoride released was highest for zirconia-reinforced GIC in comparison to conventional GIC and RMGIC. There was also a statistically significant difference in fluoride release after recharge for zirconia-reinforced GIC when compared with conventional GIC and RMGIC. Conclusion: Zirconia-reinforced GIC has added fluoride release and recharging property than conventional GIC and RMGIC. Clinical significance: Zirconia-reinforced GIC having superior compressive strength and fluoride release is an assuring material for restoration holding anticariogenic property.



Aradhana Rathod, Banibrata Lahiri, Shreya Gupta

Assessment of Different Methods in Measuring Alveolar Ridge Width Accuracy before Placement of Implant: An In Vivo Study

[Year:2021] [Month:November-December] [Volume:12] [Number:6] [Pages:5] [Pages No:474 - 478]

Keywords: Alveolar ridge width, Cone-beam computed tomography, Dental implants, Ridge mapping

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1870  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: This study aimed to evaluate the different approaches in measuring alveolar ridge width accurateness before implant placement. Materials and methods: This study included 30 partially edentulous patients with missing teeth in the age range of 18–50 years needing dental implant prosthetic replacement of the missing teeth. A stent was prepared and the width of the alveolar ridge was estimated employing the following techniques: Group I: Measurement of alveolar ridge width on cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) method, group II: Measurement of alveolar ridge width by ridge mapping technique, group III: Measurement of alveolar ridge width by surgical exposure. The data were analyzed statistically using the SPSS Statistics for Windows Software, version 17.0. The significance level was set at 5%. Results: 3.84 ± 0.20 was the width of the alveolar ridge on CBCT, 3.96 ± 0.44 with ridge mapping, and 3.78 ± 0.16 by direct measurement upon surgical exposure at point 1. The measurements at point 2 on CBCT, by ridge mapping, and on surgical exposure were 6.80 ± 0.26, 7.02 ± 0.98, and 6.68 ± 0.76, respectively. When ridge mapping and surgical exposure methods at both points were compared, the difference between the groups was significant statistically at point 2 with the p value <0.04. Conclusion: Cone-beam computed tomography and ridge mapping techniques when independently compared with the gold standard surgical exposure system, CBCT was verified to be an extremely specific and sensitive technique to measure the residual alveolar ridge width for dental implant therapy planning. Clinical significance: Residual ridge resorption following the tooth extraction is an inevitable phenomenon that results in inadequate width of the ridge. Hence, it is essential to measure the physical dimensions of the existing bone as part of the diagnosis and pre-surgical planning before implant placement. The success of the dental implant depends on the significant requirement of dimensions of the existing bone.



Gaurav Shetty, Umesh Pai, Nitesh Shetty

A Qualitative Analysis of Magic Foam and the Conventional Gingival Retraction Cord System in Dental Impressions

[Year:2021] [Month:November-December] [Volume:12] [Number:6] [Pages:6] [Pages No:479 - 484]

Keywords: Gingival retraction, Magic foam cord, Retraction cord, Tissue management

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1876  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: The present study was designed to clinically evaluate the efficacy of the magic foam retraction system and conventional retraction cords on the basis of the relative ease of working, the time required for placement, and the amount of gingival retraction. Materials and methods: Thirty-three (anterior and posterior each) abutment teeth were selected requiring full coverage restoration where more than one abutment teeth were to be prepared. After the preparation of the abutment teeth, the area was isolated thoroughly. Two impressions were made, one with the retraction cords being placed and the other with the magic foam retraction technique being used. Subjective ease of placement, the time required for placement, and the amount of gingival retraction by means of margin exposure were assessed. Results: The mean time taken for the magic foam retraction technique was 48.17 seconds and for the retraction cord technique was 131.5 seconds. In this study, the cord retraction technique was more successful for shoulder and chamfer margin preparations than the magic foam retraction technique. Also, the cord retraction technique was found to be more successful for anterior teeth than the magic foam retraction technique. The magic foam retraction technique was more successful for posterior teeth albeit not significantly. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, the magic foam retraction system appears to be a promising system with regard to reduced time for application and ease of placement. However, the amount of gingival retraction observed with the magic foam retraction system was significantly less than the retraction cord system. Clinical significance: The conventional retraction cord technique is the most popular tissue retraction system, however, it is technique-sensitive and time-consuming and also known to cause some attachment loss during manipulation. Magic foam retraction provides comparable results in less time without the loss of attachment that could help in maintaining the biological health of the tissue.



Athira K Chermmal, MB Harsha, Marenahalli R Vivekananda

Evaluation of Ofloxacin and Ornidazole as an Adjunct to Scaling and Root Planing in the Treatment of Generalized Chronic Periodontitis: A Randomized Clinical Study

[Year:2021] [Month:November-December] [Volume:12] [Number:6] [Pages:7] [Pages No:485 - 491]

Keywords: Chronic periodontitis, Ofloxacin, Ornidazole, Root planing, Scaling

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1881  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: Over the years, treatment for chronic periodontitis is changing owing to an improved understanding of the pathogenesis of the periodontal disease. Tissue invasive properties of periodontal pathogens have necessitated the use of antimicrobial agents as an adjunct to mechanical plaque control in the treatment of periodontitis. Hence, the study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ofloxacin–ornidazole combination therapy as an adjunct to scaling and root planing in the treatment of generalized chronic periodontitis. Materials and methods: A total of 40 study participants, aged from 25 to 55 years, with generalized chronic periodontitis were selected. They were randomly divided into two groups—Group I: receiving scaling and root planing along with ofloxacin–ornidazole combination therapy and group II: receiving scaling and root planing. Gingival index (GI), sulcular bleeding index (SBI), and probing pocket depth (PPD) scores were recorded at baseline, 14th day, and after 1 month. Results: Both the groups showed a reduction in GI scores, SBI scores, and mean pocket probing depth from baseline to 14th day and 1 month. However, the improvement in scores was better in a group with the ofloxacin–ornidazole combination, than the group with scaling and root planing alone. The intergroup comparison of the gingival indices, SBI, and mean pocket probing depth at baseline, 14th day, and 1 month have shown the statistically significant difference. Conclusion: It can be concluded that ofloxacin–ornidazole combination therapy is well tolerated by the patients, safe, favorable patient compliance, and proved to be effective in patients with generalized chronic periodontitis when used as an adjunct to mechanical plaque control. Clinical significance: Ofloxacin–ornidazole combination can be used as an adjuvant in the treatment of generalized chronic periodontitis.



Rakshith Hegde, Nitish Garlapati, Sushmitha Palaniswamy

A Rare Presentation of Idiopathic Multiple Impacted Teeth and Its Management with Multiunit Abutment and Malo Bridge

[Year:2021] [Month:November-December] [Volume:12] [Number:6] [Pages:4] [Pages No:492 - 495]

Keywords: Full mouth rehabilitation, Implants, Multiple impacted teeth, Multiunit abutments

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1869  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: This case report aims to bring into limelight the full mouth rehabilitation in the non-syndromic presentation of multiple carious teeth and impacted teeth, using multiunit abutments. Background: Presentation of multiple impacted teeth is very rare among the Indian population unless it is associated with syndromes or eruption disturbances. However, there are very rare instances where such patients do present with non-syndromic associations. Functional and esthetic rehabilitation of the condition becomes very crucial especially in young patients. Implants by far are considered to provide the best definitive option. Materials and methods: The surgical protocol was to extract existing partially erupted teeth and immediately place implants. Multiunit screw-retained abutments were loaded within 6 weeks. A passively seating full-arch prosthesis was designed with anterior Malo bridge. This was done to mask the labially facing unesthetic screw holes of the angulated abutments. Conclusion: In the above-mentioned case, delivery of a functional prosthesis was possible because of the use of multiunit abutments. Furthermore, the Malo bridge masked the labially facing unesthetic screw holes of the angulated abutments, thereby providing good esthetic results. Additionally, there is also the option of prosthesis retrievability, wherein the practitioner can unscrew the prosthesis whenever a surgical removal of the impacted teeth is necessary. Clinical significance: With the use of multiunit abutments, it is possible to deliver fast treatment without compromising on esthetics and functionality.



Mohammad N Alam, Wael Ibraheem, Syed AA Bukhari

Esthetic Region Space Closure Using Crestal and Buccal Corticotomy: A Case Report

[Year:2021] [Month:November-December] [Volume:12] [Number:6] [Pages:4] [Pages No:496 - 499]

Keywords: Alveolar bone, Corticotomy, Osteotomy

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1871  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: Esthetic region space closure using crestal and buccal corticotomy applying the concept of periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics (PAOO). Background: The concept of corticotomy-mediated orthodontics helps in rapidly moving teeth with minimal effects on the periodontium and reduces the treatment time. The approach toward treating anterior space closure using buccal corticotomy has been in practice, in the present case report we have included the same fundamental concepts of corticotomy and additionally introduced a crestal corticotomy. Periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics is a surgical technique to create corticotomy which helps to reduce the density of the bone and increases the turnover of tissues adjacent to the surgical site, this decrease in the bone density and increase in the bone turnover helps to facilitate the orthodontic tooth movement. Case description: A patient aged 24 years/male undergoing orthodontic treatment for closure of open spaces in the anterior region, reported with open space between the lateral incisor and canine in the maxillary region, although the treating orthodontist attempted closure using various techniques by sliding mechanism using active tie back and NiTi closed coil spring for 6 months and when the space did not close further attempts were made using non-sliding mechanics with the help of omega loops, the results were negative. The patient was referred to the periodontics department wherein the case was evaluated and surgical correction using PAOO techniques was planned, following the treatment plan the procedure was completed successfully without any complication, and subsequently, 1–2-week follow-up was done the surgical site healing was satisfactory and the sutures were removed, following which the patient was referred to the orthodontist for activation of space closure by NiTi closed coil spring 9 mm delivering the light force of 150 g. Conclusion: The results of the procedure were satisfactory healing of the surgical site and there was no complication like pocket formation, recession, or loss of interdental papilla and on activation of NiTi closed coil spring the space closure was achieved. Clinical significance: The intervention of periodontal surgery by crestal and buccal corticotomy helps to achieve space closure within a short duration with minimal complication. The decrease in bone density and increase in bone turnover helps to facilitate the orthodontic tooth movement to achieve the desired results.



Sukrit Sumant, Vikrant R Patil

Advancements in Flow Cytometry Fluidics: A Hypothesis

[Year:2021] [Month:November-December] [Volume:12] [Number:6] [Pages:4] [Pages No:500 - 503]

Keywords: Cytometry chips, Flow cytometry, Fluidics, Microfluidic Reynolds number, Two-dimensional focusing

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1872  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Flow cytometry is an invaluable tool to unravel the complexities of cell signaling. This article discusses the flow focusing principle behind most conventional cytometers and proposes an optimal Reynolds number range supported by published literature for increasing the accuracy of the data obtained by reducing doublets in the data. A description of the implementation of the microstructures in microfluidic cytometry chips for two-dimensional focusing along with an overview of its advantages has been presented along with how the proposed hypothesis can benefit this particle focusing scheme. Methods to test the given hypothesis have also been discussed.



TS Vinodhini Sudhakar, Mathan M Aiyathurai

In Vivo Efficacy of Povidone-iodine Mouth Gargles in Reducing Salivary Viral Load in COVID-19 Patients: A Systematic Review

[Year:2021] [Month:November-December] [Volume:12] [Number:6] [Pages:6] [Pages No:504 - 509]

Keywords: COVID-19, Mouth Gargle, Povidone-iodine, SARS-CoV-2, Treatment

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1868  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: Based on the published research, this article aims to systematically review the in vivo effectiveness of povidone-iodine (PVP-I) mouth gargles in reducing salivary viral load in COVID-19 patients. Materials and methods: The inhibitory potential of different variables such as PVP-I, chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), saline, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were tested against SARS-CoV-2 in recent clinical trials. In this systematic review, appropriate randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for the evidence-based question: “what is the efficacy of PVP-I mouth gargle in reducing salivary viral load in COVID-19 patients?” were searched in Medline/PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Embase, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library database from January 15, 2020, to June 15, 2021, based on defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. From the selected articles, their references and reviews relevant to our topic were also looked for any missed studies. Results: After a pertinent search for appropriate studies, five in vivo RCTs were selected and others were excluded. All the trials used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for mRNA detection and quantitation. Povidone-iodine mouth gargle (0.5–1%) used by COVID-19 patients 4th hourly effectively reduced salivary SARS-CoV-2 viral load, thereby reducing the carriage of infectious virion in adults. Statistically significant increase in Ct values, post 5, 15, and 45 minutes, 3 and 6 hours post-rinsing demonstrated the strong antiviral effect of PVP-I. Conclusion: In this COVID-19 pandemic, based on the published evidence of a few in vivo RCTs, it can be concluded that 0.5 to 1% PVP-I mouth gargle has the potency to effectively reduce the salivary SARS-CoV-2 viral load. To reinforce the use of PVP-I mouth gargles against SARS-CoV-2, this systematic review emphasizes the necessity for future research that is highly focused, robust, and has consistent techniques and a large sample size. Clinical significance: Research on the efficacy of PVP-I mouth gargle should be framed to focus on the most effective minimal concentration, exposure time, and volume of mouth gargle as well as the SARS-CoV-2 strain. The effect of PVP-I mouth gargles on viral infectivity and their cytotoxic effect on epithelial cells were not distinguished in the studies reviewed. Hence, viral cell culture technique should be employed to establish the potential virucidal activity of PVP-I against SARS-CoV-2. Host immunity against SARS-CoV-2 should also be considered in assessing the effectiveness of mouth gargles.



Prasanna Nichat, Johara M Cruz, Muralimani Mani, Gargi S Sarode, Vikrant R Patil, Muhammad S Zafar

Do Stemness Markers in Oral Erythroplakia Have a Role in Malignant Transformation: A Comprehensive Review

[Year:2021] [Month:November-December] [Volume:12] [Number:6] [Pages:5] [Pages No:510 - 514]

Keywords: Cancer stem cells, Carcinogenesis, Epithelial Dysplasia, Erythroplakia, Malignant transformation, Oral squamous cell carcinoma

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1873  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)—one of the most common neoplasms of the head and neck region—accounts for 90% of cancer-related deaths. It is a well-known fact that cancer stem cells (CSCs) play a vital role in tumor progression, metastasis, drug and radiation resistance, and recurrence. Potentially malignant disorders are a group of lesions that demonstrate epithelial dysplasia and are more likely to precede squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Among the various potentially malignant disorders, erythroplakia, a non-scrapable red lesion of the oral mucosa, is the most aggressive exhibiting severe dysplasia. Carcinogenesis is a multistep and complex process commencing from exposure of carcinogen to development of malignancy. Among the various pathogenic mechanisms of carcinogenesis, the role of CSCs in the malignant transformation of erythroplakia has been less explored. With the available information, the present review aims to discuss the stemness markers associated with the erythroplakia and to establish its association with erythroplakia and the early onset of OSCCs.


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