World Journal of Dentistry

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2021 | March-April | Volume 12 | Issue 2

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Federico V Obino, Andrea Del Giudice, Gabriele Miccoli, Shilpa Bandhi

NiTi Rotary Instruments: New Investigations of Patterns of Fracture

[Year:2021] [Month:March-April] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:2] [Pages No:95 - 96]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1803  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Kavya S Muttanahally, Rutvi Vyas, Jyoti Mago, Aditya Tadinada

Usefulness of Artificial Intelligence-based Virtual Assistants in Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology Report Writing

[Year:2021] [Month:March-April] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:97 - 102]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1807  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of four voice-based virtual assistants in oral and maxillofacial radiology report writing. Materials and methods: A questionnaire consisting of 100 questions was queried to 4 commercially available voice-based virtual assistants namely Alexa, Siri, Cortana, and Google Assistant. The questions were divided based on five categories. The categorization was based on the frequency and reason for a radiologist to refer to either a textbook or an online resource before diagnosing and finalizing a radiology report. Two evaluators queried the devices and rated them on a 4-point modified Likert scale. Results: In the order of efficiency, Google Assistant was the most efficient followed by Cortana, Siri, and Alexa. A significant difference between the examiners was observed with Cortana in anatomy, dental anatomy, differential diagnosis, and pathology. Conclusion: In this small study that queried only four voice-powered virtual assistants, it showed that they were helpful and convenient in responding to questions regarding oral and maxillofacial radiology. But there is significant scope for expansion in the number of topics and type of information delivered before these can be used specifically in oral and maxillofacial radiology report writing. Clinical significance: Oral radiologists often gather additional and updated information regarding various topics like disease-specific features, genetic mutations, and differential diagnoses which they typically get from a textbook or a website. Artificial intelligence-based virtual assistants offer radiologists a simple voice-activated interface to gather this information and can immensely help when additional information is required.



Narendra V Penumatsa

Assessment of the Color Stability of Two Different Tooth-colored Restorative Materials Used in Primary Teeth: A Comparative Study

[Year:2021] [Month:March-April] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:103 - 106]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1801  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: The current research aimed to appraise the color stability of two different tooth-colored restorative materials employed in primary teeth. Materials and methods: Ninety primary molar teeth that were extracted for various therapeutic reasons were included in the current study. Class V cavity preparation was done on the buccal surface of these 90 primary molar teeth. Depending on the type of restorative supply used, the molar teeth were randomly allocated to one of the two equivalent groups (n = 45) that is group I received nanocomposite resin while group II had resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) restoration. Rehydration after cavity preparation was achieved by keeping the samples in distilled water for 1 day. Following rehydration, these samples were washed and dried up with filter paper, and the baseline color quantification was performed. After the same, the above group samples were immersed for 10 minutes each day in three dissimilar but routinely used children's beverages that are an aerated beverage, ice candy, chocolate milk, and Bournvita milk. The color disparity of each sample was quantified with a reflectance spectrophotometer. Results: Nanocomposite resin (4.28 ± 0.02 to 11.04 ± 0.18) portrayed less resistance to color variation in contrast to RMGIC (4.74 ± 0.53 to 8.12 ± 0.12) following immersion in the aerated beverage. Following dipping in the ice candy, nanocomposite resin (4.46 ± 0.61 to 9.98 ± 0.42) depicted higher shade change in comparison to RMGIC (4.89 ± 0.22 to 6.30 ± 0.09). Following the immersion in chocolate milk and Bournvita milk, RMGIC (4.60 ± 0.20 to 5.96 ± 0.29) found trivial color variation as judged against nanocomposite resin (4.96 ± 0.01 to 8.68 ± 0.16). Conclusion: The present study concluded that the color stability of the RMGIC group showed higher resistance to staining as compared to nanocomposite resin with all beverages used in this study. Clinical significance: Children drink and eat foods that are bright and colorful. These substances contain food additives that can blemish not only the natural teeth but also the restorations. As esthetics and appearance are of foremost significance for both parents and their children, the prolonged color steadiness of restorative supplies is of extreme significance.



George Sam

Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Bracket after Using Various Etching Systems: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2021] [Month:March-April] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:107 - 110]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1811  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: This study aimed to assess the shear bond potency of orthodontic brackets following the use of multiple etching systems. Materials and methods: Sixty fit adult human mandibular premolars were employed in this study. Before preparation of the enamel surface, the buccal side of each premolar was subjected to pumicing, washing with a spray, and air-drying. Three groups each constituting 20 teeth were made. Group I: traditional acid etch using 37% phosphoric acid, group II: the self-etch primer namely One-Coat, group III: employing seventh-generation self-etching priming system. Universal testing machine was utilized to evaluate the shear bond test. Conversion to megapascals was done after estimating the forces for debonding in Newtons. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was employed for every fractured sample following debonding. Results: Group I (19.33 ± 0.22) had the greatest shear bond strength, pursued by group III (13.86 ± 0.37). The lowest shear bond strength was depicted by group II (11.48 ± 0.76). High statistical variation was noted amid the three etching agents after applying the analysis of variance test. The comparative assessment amidst the three dissimilar etching agents revealed a statistically significant difference between the three groups—I, II, and III. A score of 3 that is about 40% was highly prevalent in the traditional acid etch system pursued by 30% of the seventh generation self-etching priming system. The lowest score was for One-Coat primers. Employing the Chi-square test, a 0.036 probability value was obtained which was statistically significant for the compared ARI scores. Conclusion: It can be thus concluded that the three groups assessed through this study depicted clinically satisfactory bond strength. The traditional acid etch system showed the greatest shear strength of bonding pursued by the seventh generation self-etching primer system and self-etch primer named One-Coat in that order. Clinical significance: The bond of orthodontic brackets to the surface of enamel is a key issue in orthodontics as the importance of a steady bonding between the bracket and tooth surface is outrightly obvious. Reducing the steps involved may lessen error incorporation and may cut down the time spent by clinicians with lower chances of decalcification of enamel.



Rani R Tjin, Anastasia E Prahasti, Joko Kusnoto

Difference in Average Length of Maxillary Incisors between the Deuteromalayid and Protomalayid Sub-races

[Year:2021] [Month:March-April] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:111 - 114]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1805  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in the average length of maxillary central and lateral incisors between the deuteromalayid and the protomalayid sub-race generally and differences between men and women in both sub-races. Materials and methods: The samples of this study were maxillary central and lateral incisors periapical radiographs of male and female patients from deuteromalayid and protomalayid sub-races in Universitas Trisakti Dental Hospital (n = 200). Radiographic images were obtained from 50 men and 50 women in each of deuteromalayid and protomalayid aged 12–34 years, then the tooth length was measured using digital calipers (Nankai, Japan). The parallel technique of periapical radiograph was taken using the paralleling cone indicator device (Hanshin, Japan), digital dental X-ray devices (Dϋrr Dental Vitascan, England), and conventional dental X-ray (Veraview IX, Japan). Results: The average length of maxillary central and lateral incisors from the deuteromalayid and protomalayid sub-races was analyzed with an independent t-test and revealed that there were significant differences between the groups (p < 0.05). The average length of maxillary central and lateral incisors for deuteromalayid was 24.70 ± 0.56 and 23.59 ± 0.62 mm, and the protomalayid was 25.66 ± 0.57 and 24.62 ± 0.63 mm, respectively. Based on gender, there were significant differences in the average length of maxillary central and lateral incisors between sub-races (p < 0.05). The average length of maxillary central and lateral incisors for protomalayid men was 26.05 ± 0.39 and 25.09 ± 0.44 mm, and protomalayid women was 25.27 ± 0.42 and 24.15 ± 0.41 mm, respectively. The average length of maxillary central and lateral incisors for deuteromalayid men was 25.06 ± 0.39 and 24.04 ± 0.44 mm, and deuteromalayid women was 24.33 ± 0.47 and 23.14 ± 0.42 mm, respectively. The interclass correlation coefficients were 0.999 and 0.991 and the intra-examiner correlation were 0.75 and 0.71. Conclusion: The average length of the protomalayid maxillary central and lateral incisors is longer than the deuteromalayid sub-race. The men have a longer average length than women in both sub-races. Clinical significance: The clinical application of this study is to be used as a reference to determine the estimated working length in endodontic treatment and as a demographic data reference regarding the length of the deuteromalayid and protomalayid sub-racial teeth.



Michelle A Brown, Andrea S de Castro, Sther GF Orestes, Luiza FA Koch, Antonio AS de Lima, Maria Ângela N Machado

Oral Health and Quality of Life of Addicts in Brazilian Population

[Year:2021] [Month:March-April] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:115 - 120]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1783  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: This study aimed to investigate the impact of oral health on the quality of life of drug addicts in rehabilitation. Materials and methods: A total of 398 male individuals admitted to two drug rehabilitation centers between 2013 and 2016 responded to a structured questionnaire including sociodemographic, oral health habits, and drug usage variables. Respondents were also examined for dental caries. Oral health-related quality of life was measured using the Oral Health Impact Profile, in short-form, the OHIP-14. Descriptive statistical analysis, Mann–Whitney test, univariate and multiple Poisson regression with robust variance were performed using Stata/SE 14.1. Results: The mean severity score was 22.8 (SD = 13.2). The prevalence of worse impact (higher OHIP-14 scores) was 84.9%. In the univariate analysis, <8 years of schooling, no brushing teeth, self-perceived metallic taste, self-perceived tooth mobility, use of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and oxy, missing teeth, and DMFT score >10 were associated with a negative outcome (p < 0.05). After adjustment, remained independently associated low schooling (p = 0.021) and self-perceived metallic taste (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Drug users perceived negatively the impacts of oral health-related quality of life. Clinical significance: Drug addicts have poor oral health and quality of life. Thus, public health strategies for the rehabilitation of these individuals should account for the biopsychosocial aspects.



Amit Bhardwaj, Anurag Bhatnagar, Shalu Verma, Charu Khurana

Assessment of Hand-surface Touching Behavior among Individuals Visiting Dental Hospital in Gurugram, Haryana: A Pilot Observational Study

[Year:2021] [Month:March-April] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:121 - 125]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1809  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: This study aims to find out the frequency for touching the various surfaces including mucosal and non-mucosal as well as the use of preventive measures from coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) among individuals visiting the dental hospital in Gurugram, Haryana. Materials and methods: A total of 34 individuals were observed over a period of 21 days for 60 minutes and the frequencies of their hand touching the various surfaces were recorded. Results: The result showed a higher frequency of touching the surfaces in females. Mucosal and non-living surfaces were more touched than non-mucosal surfaces. Conclusion: This study indicates that citizens must grab better concepts of infection spread to minimize the pandemic effect. Clinical significance: Checking self-inoculation behavior can be a method of prevention of disease spread in dental hospitals.



La-ongthong Vajrabhaya, Suwanna Korsuwannawong, Piyanuch Karnasuta, Boonkanda Kaewduang, Poonnika Ratanachai, Sirikarn Aneakgerawat, San Kuntiyaratana, Witchakorn Thanakittipoom, Orachorn Thongburan

A Novel 20° X-ray Angle Shifter for Superimposed Canal Separation

[Year:2021] [Month:March-April] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:126 - 130]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1808  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and frequency of a 20° angle Shifter in separating superimposed canals on multirooted tooth radiographs. Materials and methods: Radiographs from patients with 38, 44, and 39 of two-canal maxillary premolars, three- and four-canal mandibular molars, respectively, were taken at a horizontal 20° mesial and distal shift using the Shifter. The radiographs were evaluated by two examiners using the PowerPoint program. The percentage of distinctly separated canals in both shifted radiographs was analyzed using the Chi-square test (p = 0.05). The strength of agreement between each examiner (intra and inter) was evaluated using kappa statistics (p < 0.05). Results: The percentage of acceptable radiographs using the mesial and distal shift for both examiners was similar for maxillary premolars. However, the distal and mesial shift was superior compared with the mesial and distal shift in separating the root canals in three- and four-canal mandibular molars, respectively. The strength of agreement between examiners evaluated using kappa statistics (p < 0.05) was substantial-almost perfect. Conclusion: The Shifter efficiently separates superimposed canals. The advantage of the Shifter is the precise radiograph angle taken and at the same position during the multiple steps requiring radiographs in endodontic treatment. Clinical significance: The same position of the tooth on the multiple-step radiographs in endodontics is the benefit of this novel shifter.



Vinay Suresan, Kunal Jha, Das Diptajit, Sen Sourav, Asiya Fatima

Dental Caries Experience and Oral Hygiene Status among Institutionalized Orphans of Bhubaneswar City, Odisha: A Comprehensive Dental Healthcare Program Outcome

[Year:2021] [Month:March-April] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:7] [Pages No:131 - 137]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1810  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: To assess the dental caries experience and oral hygiene status among the institutionalized orphans of Bhubaneswar city, Odisha. Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 14 orphanages consisting of 729 inmates aged 3–18 years. An assessment form was recoded for Decayed Missing Filled Tooth Index (DMFT/dmft), oral hygiene index-simplified [OHI(S)] along with a questionnaire to record the participants’ sugar consumption and oral hygiene practices. The Student's t-test was used to analyze discrete data and analysis of variance for continuous data. A binary grading system categorizing participants as “DMFT/dmft = 0” or “DMFT/dmft ≥ 1” for comparison between dental caries experience oral hygiene practices and the sugar consumption was done. The mean OHI(S) score was compared with the oral hygiene practices. A p ≤ 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The caries prevalence of this study population was 41.4%. Mean DMFT/dmft was 1.07 ± 1.56 for permanent teeth and 0.96 ± 2.11 for primary dentition. The method of toothbrushing and the frequency of sugar intake were statistically associated with the presence of dental caries (p = 0.002). The OHI(S) score was 2.09 ± 1.21 for the entire sample which inferred a fair oral hygiene status. Circular method of cleaning and changing the toothbrush within 3 months reported least mean OHI(S) scores. Conclusion: The oral health status revealed a huge occurrence of oral diseases and unmet oral health needs in the form of untreated dental caries and fair oral hygiene status. This was largely due to their poor oral health knowledge and limited availability of materials for the maintenance of proper oral hygiene. Clinical significance: Even though the results of this study are fairly modest, it is enough to speculate that there is an apparent need for dental health programs to target the institutionalized orphans to improve their oral health status and prevent oral diseases.



Komal Saini, Priyanka Chopra, Manish Yadav, Sachin Saini

Comparative Clinical Evaluation of Two Local Drug Delivery Agents (Neem Chip and Turmeric Chip) in Chronic Periodontitis: An Experimental Study

[Year:2021] [Month:March-April] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:138 - 143]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1818  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of herbal local drug delivery (LDD) agents as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) and SRP alone in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Material and methods: This split-mouth study was conducted at the Department of Periodontology, SGT Dental College, Haryana, in 30 patients between 30 years and 65 years of age where 90 sites (3 sites in one patient) were selected. Only those teeth with probing pocket depth (PPD) of ≥5 mm were included. Sites were randomized into three treatment groups. Group I with SRP + neem chip, group II with SRP + turmeric chip, and group III received SRP only. Clinical parameters plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), PPD, and relative attachment level (RAL) were recorded at baseline, 1 month after the intervention, and at 3 months. Intergroup comparisons were done using Kruskal–Wallis test followed by post hoc comparison using Mann–Whitney U test. Results: Mean PI and GI at 1 month for group I, II, and III were (1.33 ± 0.28, 1.37 ± 0.28, and 1.66 ± 0.27) (1.20 ± 0.31, 1.24 ± 0.26, and 1.31 ± 0.39), respectively. Improvement in mean PI and mean GI of group I and group II at 1 month is significant when compared with group III (p < 0.05). Probing pocket depth at 1 month for group I, II, and III was 4.16 ± 0.88, 4.21 ± 0.61, and 4.63 ± 0.68, respectively (p < 0.05 for all groups). Mean RAL at 1 month for group I, II, and III was 8.41 ± 1.59, 8.43 ± 1.66, and 9.01 ± 1.50, respectively. The mean RAL of group I and group II is significant when compared with group III at 1 month (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Better immediate results can be achieved in the management of chronic periodontitis by the use of locally delivered neem and turmeric extract in form of chips. Clinical significance: These herbal chips are natural, cost-effective without any side effects, and can be used in treating chronic periodontitis.



Keerthan Shashidhar, Chrysl Castelino, MN Kuttappa, US Krishna Nayak, Pooja Rai, Rashida Dawal, Tarona A Subba

Skeletal Changes Seen in Nonsurgically Treated Patients with Skeletal Class II Malocclusion

[Year:2021] [Month:March-April] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:144 - 149]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1817  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aims and objectives: To evaluate and compare the skeletal changes before and after the treatment of skeletal class II malocclusion with the extraction of premolars followed by fixed appliance therapy. Materials and methods: Thirty individuals, with class II skeletal patterns due to a prognathic maxilla, were selected as per the inclusion criteria. Pretreatment and posttreatment lateral cephalograms of the selected study participants were obtained, analyzed, and compared to assess the changes that might have occurred. Descriptive statistics mean and standard deviation were calculated for all variables. The pretreatment and posttreatment changes were calculated using the paired t-test. A value of p < 0.05 is considered to be statistically significant. Results: There was a decrease in mean SNA posttreatment, i.e., 1.82° and there was a decrease in mean SNB posttreatment, i.e., 0.65°. The mean ANB values also showed a significant decrease of 1.17°. Both the SN-GoGn and the FMA increased significantly by 0.83 and 1°, respectively. There was a significant increase in all facial height values [total anterior facial height (TAFH), lower anterior facial height (LAFH), and posterior facial height (PFH)]. The WITS values were observed to significantly decrease by 0.79 mm. There was also a statistically significant increase in the n-B and N-Pog values. Conclusion: The results showed that extraction therapy in skeletal class II patients due to a prognathic maxilla (with class II div 1 malocclusion) has an overall improvement of the patients’ skeletal profile since most of the reduction in the sagittal parameters was due to the remodeling of point A rather than the forward displacement of point B. An increase in the overall facial height was also observed in all the study participants. This in turn led to a backward displacement of point B leading to a potential worsening of the facial profile which was overcome by the significant remodeling of point A. Clinical significance: An important factor to be taken into consideration is the control of vertical height while retracting the anteriors as this study proves that there was a definite increase in the anterior facial height and TAFH of patients at the end of the treatment. The use of head gear/mini implants is mandatory to maintain the vertical relationship of the molars especially while treating patients who have a hyperdivergent growth pattern.



Srikala Bhandary, Roleen Pereira

Evaluation of Antiplaque and Antimicrobial Activity of Cocoa Bean Extract: An In Vivo Study

[Year:2021] [Month:March-April] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:150 - 155]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1806  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: To develop experimental mouthwash, cocoa extract added with honey and assessed antiplaque and antimicrobial activities. Materials and methods: A mouthwash was formulated from aqueous extracts of cocoa and honey. Sixty children aged 9–13 years participated in the study and were equally divided into two groups. Group I children were asked to rinse with 10 mL of cocoa with honey mouthwash and group II with 0.2% of chlorhexidine mouthwash for 21 days. Gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), Streptococcus mutans (SM), and Lactobacilli (LB) counts were assessed of both groups at baseline, 14th day, and 21st day. Data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Significant decreases in both gingival and plaque indices from baseline to 14th day and further up to 21st day (p < 0.001) were seen in both groups. The microbiological analysis revealed a significant reduction of SM and LB counts in both groups from baseline up to 21st day. However, no statistically significant differences were seen in percentage reductions of SM and LB counts between the two groups. When subjective and objective criteria were assessed, the majority of the children found the experimental mouthwash acceptable in taste and free of side effects. Conclusion: Cocoa mouthwash with honey demonstrated effective antiplaque, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties comparable with 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate. Clinical significance: Cost-effective and easily available herbs as an adjuvant to oral hygiene maintenance may have a far-reaching effect on the prevention as well as the prevalence of oral diseases. Our study indicated that cocoa with honey mouthwash can be used as a suitable alternative to chlorhexidine mouthwash in children, as an adjunct in their regular oral hygiene maintenance.



Ramasamy Madasamy, Ramachandra Prabhakar, Thirunavukarasu Ramanadhan, Saravanan Ramachandran, Rajvikram Natrajan, Sowndarya Vasudevan

Assessment of Roughness of Fiber-reinforced Polymer Composite Wires and Other Coated Esthetic Archwires

[Year:2021] [Month:March-April] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:156 - 159]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1802  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: The objective of this study was to assess the roughness of three coated archwires and fiber-reinforced polymer composite wires “as received” and post-deflection. Materials and methods: The sample comprises 40 esthetic archwire segments (n = 10) with 0.018″ size of epoxy-coated NiTi wire (G&H), optiflex (Ormco), rhodium-coated NiTi wires (American Orthodontics), and fiber-reinforced polymer composite wires (Biomers) were analyzed. The specimen was evaluated for roughness “as received” and each wire was deflected up to at a crosshead speed of 2.5 mm per minute in a universal test machine (Instron, model 4501). The evaluation of final roughness was done after a deflection on a similar aspect of wire. The comparison of roughness among the different wire brands before and after deflection was evaluated using a one-way ANOVA test. The statistically significant difference in roughness among the two groups was analyzed by Tukey's honestly significant difference test (HSD). Results: Fiber-reinforced polymer composite wires showed mild roughness than epoxy-coated NiTi wire which showed increased roughness. ANOVA shows statistical significance among wire “as received” and post-deflection. Epoxy-coated NiTi exhibited significantly increased roughness among other groups “as-received” and after deflection (p = 0.011). Conclusion: The coating of the esthetic wire estimates the roughness of orthodontic wires, but it is determined by the coating method. The roughness is increased after a deflection in wires. Epoxy-coated wires showed significantly increased roughness in comparison with other esthetic archwires. Clinical significance: The roughness of the surface influences friction, color stability, and deterioration properties. It stipulates the stability of color in archwires, effectiveness of guided tooth movement over the archwire, and biocompatibility.



Roopa Yadahalli, Gargi S Sarode

Significance of CC Group of Chemokines in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Oral Potential Malignant Disorders: A Review

[Year:2021] [Month:March-April] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:160 - 165]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1804  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: The underlying association of the CC group of cytokines and its systemic role in fibrosis. Background: Chemokines the secretory proteins are produced by leukocytes and other tissue cells integrally or after induction, function regionally in a paracrine or autocrine manner. Review results: Functionally chemokines are split into constitutive (homeostatic, housekeeping, or lymphoid) and inducible (inflammatory) ones presented by cells, based on the conditions of their production or can be both. Chemotactic proteins have a vital role in host defense activities by developing and maintaining innate and acquired immunity. Importantly, chemokines also participate in wound healing, angiogenesis/angiostasis, lymphocyte polarization, apoptosis, fibrosis, and the development and metastasis of tumors. Conclusion: It reviews the CC chemokine in health and physiology then the role of it in inflammation, immune diseases, oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs), and development and metastasis of the tumor. Clinical significance: The diseases where inflammation and fibrosis play an important role continue to grow and therefore the need for safe and effective anti-fibrotic therapies is great and is also likely to increase.



Debasish Bandyopadhyay, CJ Venkatakrishnan, Ashok K Bhati, Swaminathan Rajendiran

Melatonin could Alleviate the Dysregulation of Metabolic Reprogramming in Periodontitis—Implications in Host Modulatory Therapy

[Year:2021] [Month:March-April] [Volume:12] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:166 - 170]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1823  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Periodontitis is an infectious disease of the tooth-supporting apparatus characterized by connective tissue breakdown and alveolar bone resorption ultimately resulting in tooth loss. A chronic immune response and jeopardized oxidant–antioxidant balance are cardinal features in the pathobiology of periodontitis. The resident cells of the periodontium are known to undergo metabolic changes in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. The principal cellular fraction of the periodontal ligament space in states of health, disease, repair, and regeneration is the periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). Although these cells are believed to adapt well to bacterial infections, a recent in vitro study has shed light on the metabolic changes in these stem cells infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide. The findings of the study demonstrated elevated levels of Krebs cycle enzymes, succinate, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-alpha) in the stem cells following P. gingivalis infection. In this context, we hypothesize a potential role that could be played by melatonin, an indoleamine molecule that has been found to play a significant role in periodontal homeostasis. It has been proposed that exogeneous melatonin supplementation in periodontitis could help in targeting metabolic dysregulation as melatonin is endowed with potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Melatonin could also help in decreasing succinate production in the PDLSC by increasing alpha-ketoglutarate generation and could inhibit stabilization of HIF-alpha. Melatonin-mediated conversion of proinflammatory M1 macrophage to anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage phenotype could help in the resolution of periodontal disease and foster healing mechanisms in the diseased periodontium.


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