World Journal of Dentistry

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Volume 15, Number 2, February 2024
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Almir Badnjević

The Interplay between Tinnitus and Temporomandibular Disorders

[Year:2024] [Month:February] [Volume:15] [Number:2] [Pages:2] [Pages No:87 - 88]

Keywords: Bruxism, Orofacial pain, Temporomandibular disorders, Tinnitus, TMD

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2377  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Jagadish Chandra, Ashwin K Harekal, Keerthan Shashidhar, Menta S Kalyan

Comparison of Conventional Locking Titanium Miniplates and Three-dimensional Locking Titanium Miniplates in Treatment of Mandibular Fractures

[Year:2024] [Month:February] [Volume:15] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:89 - 94]

Keywords: Bone implant contact, Mandibular fracture, Paresthesia, Titanium three-dimensional miniplates

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2371  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aims and objectives: To compare the treatment outcomes pre- and postoperatively in mandibular fractures, in the symphysis region, parasymphysis, and body region, treated by conventional locking titanium miniplates and three-dimensional (3D) locking titanium miniplates on parameters such as postoperative occlusion, stability, infection, healing, distortion of plates, and duration of surgery. Materials and methods: A cohort of 50 patients presenting with mandibular fractures (MFs) involving the symphysis, parasymphysis, and body regions was included in this study. The patient pool was evenly divided into two groups, denoted as groups I and II, each comprising 25 individuals. In group I, patients underwent treatment utilizing 2.0 mm titanium miniplates featuring a conventional locking system, while in group II, 2.0 mm titanium miniplates with a 3D locking system were employed. The therapeutic interventions were conducted under general anesthesia for both groups. Subsequent to the surgical procedures, patients underwent systematic follow-ups at 1 and 3-month intervals, during which evaluations were performed to assess parameters such as infection status, occlusion, stability of fracture segments, paresthesia, healing progress, and the occurrence of hardware failure. Results: The fixation process using 3D plates exhibited a mean duration of 20–25 minutes, while the conventional locking plate method showed an average duration of 40–45 minutes. A statistically significant “p” value of 0.000 was obtained when comparing the duration of surgery between the two groups. However, no statistical significance was observed when evaluating other parameters between the groups. Conclusion: A titanium plate with a 3D locking system can be used as an alternative to a conventional locking system because of its strength, malleability, and its aid in better reduction and stabilization of fractured segments into a single unit, thus providing 3D stability at the fracture site. Clinical significance: This study contributes to addressing the need to reduce surgical duration. The utilization of 3D locking plates is demonstrated to integrate advanced techniques for mandibular fracture fixation, resulting in an expedited treatment process. This innovative approach envisions novel strategies for fracture management, ultimately aiming to enhance patient outcomes.



Pallavi Bhat, Shruti A Patil, Charisma Thimmaiah, Kaushik Shetty, Nithya A Thomas, PA Jayalakshmi

Evaluation of Efficacy of Self-etch Adhesives in the Restoration of Noncarious Cervical Lesions: A Controlled Clinical Trial

[Year:2024] [Month:February] [Volume:15] [Number:2] [Pages:7] [Pages No:95 - 101]

Keywords: Clinical trial, Modified United States Public Health Service criteria, Noncarious cervical lesions, Self-etch

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2376  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and background: Dental adhesives have three-step, two-step, and one-step bonding systems available. Multicomponent bonding systems are being replaced by user-friendly, simplified, consolidated adhesives. The aim of this research was to restore noncarious cervical lesions (NCCLs) and compare the in vivo therapeutic effectiveness of two self-etch adhesives to etch-and-rinse adhesives over 12 months. Materials and methods: A double-blind, randomized, parallel, longitudinal study with a total of 60 teeth with NCCLs was randomly allocated to three groups: group I—Adper single bond 2, (control) group II—Clearfil SE, group III—G-bond. The teeth were restored with nanocomposite. The restored teeth were scored using modified United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria regarding retention, marginal discoloration, marginal adaptation, sensitivity, surface texture, and color match, which were evaluated at three different time intervals, that is, at baseline, 6 months, and 1 year. The Kruskal–Wallis test was used for statistical analysis. Results: At baseline, all the restorations of all three groups scored α for all evaluated variables. At 6 months, restorations of both Clearfil SE and G-bond groups showed 100% retention rates, and at 1 year, the retention rates were 95 and 100%, respectively. Slight marginal discoloration and lower marginal adaptation occurred with both the self-etch adhesives; however, none of the results was statistically significant when compared to the control group. Conclusion: Self-etch adhesives showed good clinical performance in comparison to the etch-and-rinse system; however, a longer observation period is required to support the results of this investigation. Clinical significance: Self-etch adhesives showed comparable clinical efficacy to etch-and-rinse adhesives. They are a good alternative to traditional adhesives as they have limited steps and are less technique-sensitive.



Mary S Missier, Mahesh Ramakrishnan, Saravana Dinesh, Deepa Gurunathan

Biosynthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Its Cytotoxic Evaluation Using Human Gingival Fibroblast Cell Lines

[Year:2024] [Month:February] [Volume:15] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:102 - 106]

Keywords: Cytotoxic testing, Fibroblast, Human gingival fibroblast cells, Lemon juice, Zinc oxide nanoparticles

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2366  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To synthesize zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) and to evaluate their cytotoxicity using human gingival fibroblast cell lines. Materials and methods: Zinc oxide (ZnO) NP was synthesized from lemon extract, and an 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to measure the cytotoxic effects of ZnO NPs on a human gingival fibroblast cell line. The percentage of surviving cells was determined 24 hours after being exposed to ZnO NPs at 10, 20, 30, 50, 100, and 200 ng/mL. Results: Zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs demonstrated roughly 84% cytotoxicity on human gingival fibroblast cells, even at the highest dose tested (200 ng/mL), compared to the control group with 100% cell viability. The MTT assay showed that after 24 hours of treatment with 100 nm, ZnONP did not significantly alter the cell viability in comparison to the control group, showing it to be less cytotoxic. Conclusion: Zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs are perfectly suited for targeted drug administration due to their regulated size, shape, and surface features. They are also safe for usage due to their biocompatibility and dose-dependent cytotoxic effect. Clinical significance: Zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs synthesized from the above method can be used in various biomedical applications. The lemon extract is an alternative method to the conventional synthesis of silver NPs.



Gustavo Obando-Pereda, Viviana Tejada-Alferez, Emilio Ponce-Fuentes, Alberto Figueroa-Banda, Luis A Ponce-Soto

Development of Candida Biofilms on Bacterial Preformed Biofilms on Titanium Surfaces

[Year:2024] [Month:February] [Volume:15] [Number:2] [Pages:7] [Pages No:107 - 113]

Keywords: Candida biofilms, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococci, Titanium alloys

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2374  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: Candida species are frequent inhabitants of the oral cavity and generally are associated with implanted biomaterials in a biofilm state. The adhesion to these materials has been studied, and it has been proposed that bacterial biofilms can enhance Candida's ability to adhere to these materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of some oral Streptococcus species and Staphylococcus aureus preformed biofilms on the development of Candida species on titanium disks. Materials and methods: A biofilm model was performed to develop Streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus biofilm on 60 medical titanium surfaces firstly for 48 hours at incubation at 37°C in a 10% partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) atmosphere. After that, Candida species was placed on bacterium-preformed biofilm. At the end of the incubation, samples were sonicated, and bacteria were treated for colony forming unit (CFU) count and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. Data was processed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey post hoc test, and p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The data showed that Candida albicans (C. albicans) and C. tropicalis were able to grow on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and S. aureus preformed biofilm. C. glabrata did not show any growth in comparison with control (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study imply that bacterial-preformed biofilm allows C. albicans and C. tropicalis to develop biofilm, especially on S. mutans and S. aureus. Clinical significance: The clinical significance of the present study reveals the importance of the maintenance of dental prosthesis hygiene because the bacterial preformed biofilm can lead yeast growing.



Kaushik Chakraborty, Joyeeta Sardar, Sounak Das

Comparative Analysis for Gender Determination of Palatal Rugoscopy among Children in Different Ethno-racial Populations of North Bengal

[Year:2024] [Month:February] [Volume:15] [Number:2] [Pages:7] [Pages No:114 - 120]

Keywords: Forensic investigation, Indo-Aryan, Indo-Mongoloid, Palatal rugae

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2379  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Palatal rugoscopy helps in forensic investigative procedures, in cases of decomposed/burnt bodies, and in cases of missing upper limbs. Palatal rugae facilitate personal identification, age estimation, or gender determination in such cases. Aim: The present study is a cross-sectional comparative analysis done for gender determination using palatal rugoscopy among different ethnic-racial populations of North Bengal. Materials and methods: The study was a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, North Bengal Dental College and Hospital, Darjeeling, West Bengal, India. Around 100 study models (SM) of patients attending the outpatient department selected for orthodontic treatment were selected, and 32 cases were included in the study within a period of 6 months (September 2022 to February 2023). A black permanent marker pen was used to mark the rugae patterns in the SM, and these were analyzed with reference from Thomas and Kotze's classification. Results: The forward A and B shapes of the rugae were predominant among the females in both groups, as compared to the males. The mean values among the females were 2.93, and there was a statistical difference in the unified type of rugae within the females (mean of 1.99) were present, showing a higher prevalence as compared to males (0.90). The prevalence of the circular pattern increased significantly in females (0.89) compared to males (0.66). The p-values in the curved, straight, wavy, circular, and unified patterns were seen to be 0.124, 0.4236, 0.011, 0.088, and 0.011, respectively. Conclusion: The mean number of rugae was higher in females than males, thus portraying that palatal rugae patterns are unique and chiefly specific to an individual. Clinical significance: A widespread study on comparative rugae analysis would provide a comprehensive overview regarding the similarities, differences, and prevalence patterns of palatal rugae among different ethnic-racial populations and also gender differentiation between them.



Vandana Pandey, Joyce Sequeira

Comparison of Antibacterial Coated and Noncoated Suture Material in Closure of Extraction Socket: A Clinical and Microbiological Study

[Year:2024] [Month:February] [Volume:15] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:121 - 126]

Keywords: Plain vicryl suture, Soft tissue healing, Suture site infection, Triclosan-coated vicryl

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2384  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To evaluate and compare the clinical and antibacterial efficacy of plain vicryl suture material and triclosan-coated vicryl suture material in extraction sockets. Materials and methods: A total of 12 patients (24 extraction sites) who were indicated for bilateral orthodontic extraction of first premolars were enrolled in the study. The extraction on the right side and left side of the first premolar teeth was carried out and sutured with triclosan-coated vicryl (3-0) suture with a round body needle on the right side and plain vicryl (3-0) suture with round body needle on the left side. While placing the suture, ease of handling of both suture materials was assessed. Postoperatively, on day 3, soft tissue healing and suture site infection were studied. On day 7, sutures were removed from extraction sites and sent for microbiological evaluation and healing, and suture site infections were assessed. Results: The results obtained from the study suggest that there was a statistically significant difference between both suture materials in terms of soft tissue healing. But statistically, there was no significant difference between both suture materials in terms of intraoperative handling, suture site infection (SSI), and bacterial colonization. Between the right and left sides, there was a statistically significant difference, with mean ranks of 16.5 and 8.5 on day 3 (p-value = 0.005) and 17.25 and 7.75 on day 7. On the basis of the quantitative assessment, there was a substantial reduction in adherence of bacteria on the right side compared to the left side. Conclusion: This study concluded that triclosan-coated vicryl suture has a promising potential in preventing the colonization of bacteria around the extraction area. Triclosan-coated vicryl suture reduces suture site infection and enhances soft tissue healing. Clinical significance: The clinical significance of this study lies in its potential to inform dental practitioners about the efficacy of triclosan-coated vicryl suture material compared to plain vicryl suture material in extraction socket healing. If the study demonstrates that triclosan-coated vicryl suture material leads to better clinical outcomes and reduced bacterial colonization in extraction sockets, it could influence clinical practice by encouraging the use of this coated suture material for better patient outcomes, reduced risk of infection, and improved wound healing. Additionally, the comparison of the two materials in a split-mouth study design provides valuable insights into their relative effectiveness within the same patient, minimizing confounding variables and enhancing the reliability of the findings.



Vidyalakshmi Chandrasekar

Correlation of Bite Mark with Bitemporal, Endocanthion, Exocanthion, Bizygomatic, Interalar, Intercommissural, and Bigonial Width from Forensic Perspective: A Clinical Study

[Year:2024] [Month:February] [Volume:15] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:127 - 132]

Keywords: Bite, Crime, Face, Forensic, Three-dimensional

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2382  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To evaluate and correlate the intercanine distance obtained from the bite mark with the facial landmarks such as bitemporal width (BTW), endocanthion width (ENW), exocanthion width (EXW), bizygomatic width (BZW), interalar width (IAW), intercommissural width (ICW), and bigonial width (BGW). Materials and methods: Bite mark registration was done on 163 subjects satisfying the inclusion criteria and scanned using a three-dimensional (3D) laser scanner to obtain the intercanine distance. A two-dimensional (2D) image of the prominent facial landmarks was captured using a digital camera. The facial landmarks such as BTW, ENW, EXW, BZW, IAW, ICW, and BGW were evaluated from the photographs using photo-imaging software and the values were subjected to statistical analysis using Pearson correlation coefficient and independent-sample t-test. Results: A positive correlation was found between the intercanine distance and the facial landmarks. Minimal difference was observed between the male and female populations. A paired t-test showed that the maximum number of individuals had <5% variability for all the facial landmarks except the EXW width. Conclusion: The intercanine distance obtained from a bite mark can be used as a dependable parameter to predict BTW, ENW, EXW, BZW, IAW, ICW, and BGW. Clinical significance: Bite marks found in a crime scene can be used for the prediction of various facial widths. This information can be useful for identification of the perpetrator.



Mahmoud M Badran, Salwa M Awad, Rizk A Elagamy

Evaluation of Different Pulpotomy Agents Used for Treatment of Immature Permanent Molars: A Randomized Clinical Trial

[Year:2024] [Month:February] [Volume:15] [Number:2] [Pages:8] [Pages No:133 - 140]

Keywords: Biodentine, Calcium hydroxide, Immature permanent teeth, Platelet-rich fibrin, Randomized clinical trial

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2380  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The present study was performed to assess and compare the effectiveness of pulpotomy agents, namely calcium hydroxide, biodentine, and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), in the treatment of immature permanent molars in children aged 7–10 years. Materials and methods: A total of 28 children (45 molars) who underwent pulpotomy were assigned at random to one of three groups—calcium hydroxide, biodentine, or PRF. At 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months, postoperatively, the patients underwent clinical and preoperative radiographic evaluations utilizing digital periapical radiography and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Results: There were no statistically significant changes observed in any of the groups during the 18-month follow-up period. At 18 months, the clinical success rates for calcium hydroxide, biodentine, and PRF were 86.7, 100, and 93.3%, respectively. Radiographic analysis of the root lengths of the three groups did not identify any significant variations that were statistically significant. Conclusion: Both biodentine and PRF can be considered a substitute for calcium hydroxide as pulp medicaments after pulpotomy of immature permanent molars. Clinical significance: The clue for the future about treating permanent molars with immature roots. It is recommended to use PRF as a great oral tissue-derived stem cell substitute for calcium hydroxide.



Nivethitha Karuppiah, S Gheena, Pratibha Ramani, Abilasha Ramasubramanian

Chemopreventive Role of Sulindac Sulfone on 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide-induced Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinogenesis in Rats

[Year:2024] [Month:February] [Volume:15] [Number:2] [Pages:9] [Pages No:141 - 149]

Keywords: β-catenin, E-cadherin, Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, Histopathology, Immunohistochemistry, 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide, Sulindac sulfone

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2370  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of sulindac sulfone against head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) induced with 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO) in a murine model. Materials and methods: A total of 18 male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups (n = 6) as follows—group I (control), which received normal drinking water; group II (test), which received 4-NQO through topical application and drinking water; and group III (treatment) which received 4-NQO followed by with sulindac sulfone (100 mg/kg). At the end of the experimental period in the 21st week, the rats were sacrificed, the tissues were collected, formalin-fixed, and sections were made. Histopathological analysis and immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of e-cadherin and β-catenin were analyzed. Results: Histopathological analysis showed improvement in the histopathological parameters in the treatment group; however, it was not statistically significant. IHC analysis showed increased β-catenin (p = 0.296) and increased E-cadherin expression (p = 0.002) in treatment compared to the test group. Conclusion: The study data indicate that sulindac sulfone displayed showed effective chemoprotective activity in 4-NQO induced HNSCC mediated by improvement in histopathology parameters and upregulation in the expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin. Clinical significance: Sulindac sulfone elicits potent chemoprotective activity against 4-NQO provoked HNSCC mediated by activation of pro-inflammatory condition and apoptosis.



Arpita Singh, Nilanjana Sarkar, George Sam, Nivedita Sahoo, Biswaroop Mohanty, Shilpa Mailankote, Shazia Mushtaq, Saiid Elshafey M Beshir

Evaluation of Dermatoglyphic Patterns between Two Different Ethnic Populations: A Comparative Study

[Year:2024] [Month:February] [Volume:15] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:150 - 154]

Keywords: Bengali, Dermatoglyphics, Genetics, Malocclusion, Odia, Palm impression

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2383  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of the present investigation was to compare the fingerprint patterns between Odia and Bengali students. Materials and methods: For the present study, a total of 200 Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS) students between the ages of 20 and 25 were chosen. There were 100 Odia BDS students in group A. One hundred Bengali BDS students comprised group B. Fingerprints were taken after the subjects were chosen. All of the samples’ fingerprints and palm impressions were assessed. The study investigated the percentage frequency of various hand and digit patterns. A statistical analysis was also performed on the fingertip pattern. Results: The total number of arches among Odia students was 145 (61.70%) whereas for Bengali students it was 90 (38.29%). Similarly, the number of whorls for Odia students was 514 (52.44%), and for Bengali students, it was 466 (47.56%). The percentage frequency of ulnar loops for group A was 344 (41.19%), and for group B, it was 491 (58.80%). For radial loops, the Odia students had a percentage of 73 (47.71%) and the Bengali students had a percentage of 80 (52.28%). The variation of percentage frequency of twinned loops among group A was 70 (79.54%) and 18 (20.45%). Conclusion: The present study concluded that an increase in ulnar loops and whorls was found in both Odia and Bengali students. There was complete absence of radial loops in digit I, II, and III among Bengali students compared to Odia adults. There was complete absence of twinned loops in digits III–V for both groups. There was complete absence of central pocket loops from all the digits of both groups on both sides. Clinical significance: A useful technique for including and excluding suspects at crime scenes is the distinctive and enduring nature of dermatoglyphic traits. In forensic situations, dermatoglyphic print comparisons can be used to prove personal identification. Additionally, dermatoglyphic traits have been utilized by academics to examine differences across various ancestries and population groups.



Sindhura Turimella, Srikanth Chintalapani, Navya Muttineni, Usha Purumandla, Guru Ram T Kukkunuru, Pushpalatha Tummakomma, Prashanth Panta

Detection of Novel Periodontal Pathogens Using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization: A Clinical Study

[Year:2024] [Month:February] [Volume:15] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:155 - 160]

Keywords: Chronic periodontitis, Filifactor alocis, Fluorescence in situ hybridization, Novel pathogens, Selenomonas sputigena, Synergistetes

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2369  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This study aimed to detect and compare the frequency of selected novel periodontal pathogens in chronic periodontitis patients and periodontally healthy subjects using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Materials and methods: A total of 72 subjects were divided into two groups of 36 patients in each group. The control group comprised subjects with clinically healthy periodontium, and cases are subjects with chronic periodontitis. Clinical parameters like probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), plaque index (PI), and gingival bleeding index (GBI) were recorded, and a subgingival plaque sample was collected using a sterile Gracey curette and was transferred to a vial of transport media containing Tris-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid buffer (TE buffer) and was sent for FISH analysis. After the procedure, the fluorescently stained bacteria, that is, Filifactor alocis (F. alocis), Selenomonas sputigena (S. sputigena), and Synergistetes were identified and counted from the smear and quantitated using a simple grading. The data was recorded and statistically analyzed. Results: Increased detection frequency of F. alocis, S. sputigena, and Synergistetes in subgingival plaque samples of patients with chronic periodontitis was more significant than in healthy subjects. However, Synergistete's frequency of detection was less than the other two microorganisms. The detection of Synergistetes cluster A was higher than Synergistetes cluster B. A positive correlation was found between F. alocis and clinical parameters like PPD and GBI (p < 0.05). However, a positive correlation could not be established between the clinical parameters and the expression of S. sputigena and Synergistetes. The detection frequency of F. alocis was found to be more preponderant than the other two organisms. Conclusion: The present investigation has deciphered that uncultivated microorganisms like F. alocis, S. sputigena, and Synergistetes are part of microorganisms associated with chronic periodontitis and may play a role in the initiation and progression of periodontal disease. Clinical significance: In addition to conventional nonsurgical and antibiotic therapies, additional therapeutic modalities are being developed in response to recent insights about the origin of the disease. Molecular techniques like FISH will accomplish a quick detection of novel periodontal pathogens, which would enrich patient care by developing.



Deepa Gurunathan, Saranya Varadarajan, Thodur M Balaji

Knowledge, Attitude, and Awareness of Parents on Bruxism in Children: A questionnaire Study

[Year:2024] [Month:February] [Volume:15] [Number:2] [Pages:7] [Pages No:161 - 167]

Keywords: Awareness, Bruxism, Children, Knowledge, Parents

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2323  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of parents regarding bruxism in their children. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted with 1,065 participants comprising 26 questions, of which eight were demographically related, and 18 were related to the knowledge, attitude, and awareness of the condition. The questionnaire was conducted with Google Forms on the online platform. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the obtained data. Results: Around 48.9% of parents had reported that bruxism is clenching or grinding the teeth tightly. Parents of male children had better knowledge of the condition. Similarly, knowledge increased with an increase in birth order. Parents who were not working had better knowledge of the condition. Conclusion: The knowledge of parents on bruxism is insufficient and could be enhanced by conducting camps, lectures, and social media posts. Clinical significance: The results of the study shed light on the fact that increasing awareness of bruxism would aid in early diagnosis of the condition and prevent complications such as loss of tooth structure, temporomandibular joint disorders, and improved sleep patterns in children.



Sandeep Kalarickal Madhu, KS R Nair, Johnson Akkarapatty George, Midhun Sai, Shahina Karimbana Thottathil, Arun Thankamony Jayanthi

Stereo lithography and Patient-specific Implants in Reconstruction of Craniofacial Defects: Institutional Experience

[Year:2024] [Month:February] [Volume:15] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:168 - 173]

Keywords: Case report, Craniofacial defects, Patient-specific implants, Posttrauma defect, Stereolithography

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2372  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: To replicate the stereolithography (STL) method to reconstruct the craniofacial skeleton with titanium implants through conventional surgical site approaches, thereby assessing the intraoperative efficacy in terms of time management, accuracy in fixation, restoration of geometry, and postoperative outcome in terms of stability of implants, function, esthetics, and patient satisfaction. Background: Conventional methods of reconstruction of the maxillofacial region with autografts or flaps might not yield the best results in the form of function esthetics and offer donor site morbidity and necrosis of the recipient site, but with the advent of STL restores the geometry of craniofacial skeleton with less operative time and risk for surgeons and postoperative complications. Case description: This paper reports a series of three cases that had major craniofacial defects post cranioplasty, reconstructed with patient-specific titanium implants by stereo lithographic method, and one case of mandibular reconstruction with free fibula flap postresection for ameloblastoma guided by STL, with a minimum follow-up period of 4 years and observed satisfactory results in terms of function and esthetics. Conclusion: Stereolithography (STL)-guided implants have the potential to replace conventional bone grafting and restore a patient's esthetics, function, and quality of life by offering no donor site morbidity, aiding presurgical planning, performing mock surgeries, and reconstruction of defects with precision. Clinical significance: Stereolithography (STL) technology alleviates the use of bone grafts and flaps for reconstruction of craniomaxillofacial defects and aids in the best esthetic and functional outcome, no donor site morbidity, and is easier for the surgeons.



Dinraj Kulkarni, Dhriti Garde, Sachin Sarode, Aliya Khan, Janardhan Garde, Apurva Naik

Coronavirus Disease 2019, Mucormycosis, and Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive Patient: A Rare Case Report and Review of Literature

[Year:2024] [Month:February] [Volume:15] [Number:2] [Pages:7] [Pages No:174 - 180]

Keywords: Case report, Coinfection, Human immunodeficiency virus, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, Mucormycosis, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2381  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: This case report represents an extremely rare event of coinfection associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Mucormycosis, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. Background: This case report suggests that the patient suffered from quadruple infections like HIV, MTB, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and mucormycosis. Case description: A 41-year-old patient with a known history of HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was hospitalized with an 8 days history of fever, tiredness, sore throat, anosmia, myalgia, headache, shortness of breath, and cough with hemoptoic sputum. To confirm the diagnosis, the patient underwent laboratory and diagnostic tests in the form of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with a high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) score of 16/25, D-dimer and C-reactive protein (CRP) for COVID-19, Monteux test, and gene expert test for MTB, complete blood count showing leukocytosis and monocytosis, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) found to be 41, cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) count was 340 cells mm3, and HIV-1 RNA level was 9000 copies/mL to confirm HIV positivity. After 10 days of admission, the patient started with dull, aching pain in the upper right posterior region of the oral cavity, which worsened in due course due to the presentation of numbness in the malar region area and the mobility of the teeth. Diagnostic tests in the form of CT of paranasal sinuses (PNS), CT brain, and orbit were performed, suggestive of suspected invasive fungal infection. To confirm the diagnosis, a biopsy was taken and sent for histopathological diagnosis, and the report suggested that it was mucormycosis. Conclusion and clinical significance: Despite quadruple coinfections, the patient survived and recovered from complications. Further diagnosis and investigations for mucormycosis, MTB, and HIV/AIDS should be carried out for all the patients admitted to the COVID-19 ward due to their similar and nonspecific clinical manifestations.



Devika Bajpai, Jaiganesh Ramamurthy

Role of Alginate-based Scaffolds for Periodontal Regeneration of Intrabony Defects: A Systematic Review

[Year:2024] [Month:February] [Volume:15] [Number:2] [Pages:7] [Pages No:181 - 187]

Keywords: Alginate, Intrabony defects, Periodontitis, Periodontal regeneration, Polymers, Scaffold

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2367  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: This systematic review aims to evaluate the effectiveness of scaffolds based on alginate in the regeneration of intrabony defects in periodontal tissue. Materials and methods: A thorough exploration was conducted in databases such as “PubMed”, “Google Scholar”, “Cochrane Library”, and “Science Direct”, adhering to predefined eligibility criteria. Following meticulous screening, studies involving in vitro and in vivo assessments of alginate's efficacy as a scaffold were chosen for inclusion. Results: The eight chosen studies investigated the involvement of alginate-based scaffolds in the regeneration of periodontal tissues. Among these, five in vivo studies utilized histologic and histometric analyzes, while the remaining in vitro studies examined bone regeneration by assessing alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) through various staining methods. Comparisons were made with other biopolymers, molecules, or stem cells. Across all eight studies, alginate scaffolds consistently demonstrated superior outcomes in terms of bone regeneration. Conclusion: Combining alginate with other biopolymers can enhance its regenerative efficacy. Therefore, future researchers should concentrate on integrating novel biopolymers for further improvement. Clinical significance: Scaffolds made from alginate possess the ability to restore tissue lost as a result of periodontitis, demonstrating significant clinical relevance.


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