World Journal of Dentistry

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Volume 11, Number 6, November-December 2020

EDITORIAL

Rodolfo Reda, Andrea Del Giudice, Alessandro Mazzoni, Shilpa Bhandi, Alessio Zanza, Dario Di Nardo

Heat-treated Ni-Ti Rotary Instruments Influencing the Success of Endodontic Treatments

[Year:2020] [Month:November-December] [Volume:11] [Number:6] [Pages:2] [Pages No:437 - 438]

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1782  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Hytham N Fageeh, Manawar A Mansour, Hussam M Muyidi, Abu Bakr Ahmed, Sameer J Ogayshi, Reghunathan S Preethanath

Impact of Verbal and Braille Text Oral Hygiene Instructions on Visually Impaired Individuals: A Randomized Clinical Trial

[Year:2020] [Month:November-December] [Volume:11] [Number:6] [Pages:7] [Pages No:439 - 445]

Keywords: Braille text, Health promotion, Oral hygiene, Visually impaired

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1775  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: To assess the oral hygiene knowledge and compare the effect of verbal oral hygiene instructions with that of textual Braille instructions on the periodontal health status of Arabic-speaking visually impaired individuals. Materials and methods: Sixty individuals (age, 8–57 years) with visual impairment were randomly recruited and divided into two intervention groups (n = 30 each) based on the mode of oral hygiene instructions: verbal and Braille. A questionnaire with 15 close-ended questions was used to assess knowledge, attitude, and practices related to oral health. The periodontal status (using oral hygiene, gingival, and plaque scores) was examined, and oral prophylaxis was performed. After 3 months, reassessments were conducted to evaluate the oral hygiene and overall knowledge in each group. Results: Baseline responses showed low knowledge and poor attitudes toward self-care of oral health among the subjects in both groups. After 3 months of follow-up, the mean overall knowledge of the remaining 53 participants was significantly (p < 0.05) increased from (3.97 ± 1.33 and 4.21 ± 1.4) to (5.77 ± 2.79 and 11.62 ± 2.5) in the verbal and Braille textual instructions groups, respectively. Significant reductions in oral hygiene, gingival, and plaque scores from baseline were observed in both groups (p < 0.01). After 12 weeks, the plaque, calculus, and oral hygiene indices were significantly lower in the Braille group (n = 27) when compared with those in the verbal group (n = 26; p < 0.01). There were three dropouts in the Braille group and four dropouts in the verbal group. Conclusion: This trial demonstrated the effectiveness of using a textual Braille to improve both the knowledge and clinical periodontal indices in visually impaired individuals when compared with that of a verbal intervention alone. Clinical significance: The study revealed that Braille textural communication can be used as an effective tool to implement oral hygiene instructions in visually impaired individuals.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Dusit Bumalee, Puangwan Lapthanasupkul, Eakapong Tamboon, Anchisa Aittiwarapoj, Boworn Klongnoi, Nakarin Kitkumthorn

Low Frequency of Human Papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr Virus DNA in Ameloblastoma of Thai Patients

[Year:2020] [Month:November-December] [Volume:11] [Number:6] [Pages:5] [Pages No:446 - 450]

Keywords: Ameloblastoma, DNA, Epstein-Barr virus, Human papillomavirus, Thai

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1771  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: This preliminary study aimed to evaluate the frequency of human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in solid/multicystic ameloblastoma (AM). Materials and methods: A total of 20 fresh-frozen AM tissue was investigated for HPV and EBV DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at L1 of HPV and LMP1 of EBV. Results: It was found that 2 out of 20 cases (10%) were positive for HPV PCR, whereas 3 out of 20 cases (15%) were positive for EBV PCR. Importantly, a mix of HPV and EBV DNA was observed in one case. Conclusion: Our study presented a low frequency of HPV and EBV DNA in AM. Further studies with different cohorts and larger sample sizes are necessary for a better understanding of the frequency of both viruses in AM. Clinical significance: HPV and EBV may not be involved in ameloblastogenesis.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Aarya N Bharadwaj, Vijayalakshmi Byatappa, Rekha Raju, Rekha Umakanth, Prajila Alayadan

Antiplaque and Antigingivitis Effectiveness of Tea Tree Oil and Chlorine Dioxide Mouthwashes among Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

[Year:2020] [Month:November-December] [Volume:11] [Number:6] [Pages:6] [Pages No:451 - 456]

Keywords: Mouthwashes, Oral hygiene, Tea tree oil,Chlorine dioxide, Dental plaque, Gingivitis

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1765  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: Gingivitis is a common oral condition that can lead to severe dental complications. Prior research has shown the antimicrobial efficacies of tea tree oil (TTO) and chlorine dioxide (ClO2) against oral microorganisms. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of these mouthwashes against dental plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation among young adults. Materials and methods: This study followed a single-center, parallel-group, double-blind, randomized controlled trial design and was conducted in Bengaluru among 60 participants aged 18–25 years. Participants were randomly allocated into one of the three study groups (chlorhexidine, TTO, chlorine dioxide) with 20 participants in each and used the respective mouthwash twice daily along with other oral hygiene practices. The modified Silness and Loe plaque index and the Loe and Silness gingival index were used to assess plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation at both times—baseline and follow-up (21 days). The paired t-test and nonparametric tests like Wilcoxon sign-rank test and Kruskal–Wallis test with post hoc Dunn test were used to assess the outcome measures. A p value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A statistically significant reduction in mean gingival and plaque scores was observed in all three groups after 21 days. Tea tree oil and chlorhexidine were comparable in reducing plaque scores, whereas chlorhexidine was superior in reducing gingival scores. Conclusion: Tea tree oil and chlorine dioxide were effective in reducing plaque accumulation and gingivitis and could be suitable alternatives for chlorhexidine. Clinical significance: Mouthwashes are the most widely used chemical adjuncts to mechanical plaque control and adverse effects of chlorhexidine digluconate have limited its use in cases of gingivitis. Thus, among the alternatives available, there is a need for the product with minimum side effects and maximum efficacy and so this study evaluated the effect of TTO and chlorine dioxide mouth rinses and compared their effects with chlorhexidine against dental plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation among young adults.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Moataz M Barakat, Nubesh S Khan, Yasser A Araby, Wael M Zakaria

Comparative Evaluation of Dimensional Accuracy and Tear Strength of Vinyl Siloxanether and Polyether Impression Materials: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2020] [Month:November-December] [Volume:11] [Number:6] [Pages:5] [Pages No:457 - 461]

Keywords: Dimensional accuracy, Polyether, Tear strength, Vinyl siloxanether

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1764  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim of the study: The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the tear strength and dimensional accuracy of vinyl siloxanether and polyether impression material. Materials and methods: According to the ADA specification no. 19, a metal mold was prepared for elastomeric impression materials. A total of 28 specimens were made which were divided equally into 2 groups. The mold was positioned on the block and vinyl siloxanether, and polyether impression materials were syringed into the mold and immediately covered with a polyethylene sheet followed by a flat glass plate. The specimen-forming assembly was placed immediately in a water bath 32°C ± 2°C to simulate the oral temperature and left for double the setting time. When set, the impressions were separated from the test block, and any flash was carefully removed. Evaluation of the dimensional accuracy was made after 24 hours of making an impression. The tear strength test was conducted according to the ASTM 1004 procedure with a 90° angle-shaped specimens free of nicks with a thickness of 1.8 mm. Twenty-eight specimens were made and divided equally into two groups. Vinyl siloxanether and polyether impression materials were manipulated and injected into the mold and immediately covered with a polyethylene sheet followed by a flat glass plate. After setting, the specimens were removed from the mold, and any flash was carefully removed by using a sharp blade. Samples were stretched at a constant rate of 50 cm/minute in the Universal testing machine. The tear strength was calculated using the equation T = F/D kg/cm2 Results: Polyether exhibited less dimensional changes and higher tear strength value than vinyl siloxanether, but there were no statistically significant differences between the two impression materials. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, both polyether and vinyl siloxanether exhibited acceptable dimensional accuracy and tear strength. Clinical significance: Although further studies are recommended to evaluate the clinical performance, patient acceptance and cytotoxicity of the vinyl siloxanether as an impression material, results of this study showed that the mechanical properties of the material are comparable to those of polyether, suggesting their clinical success as an impression material during construction of different prosthetic restorations.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Anu Sharma, Tarun Kalra, Shailesh Jain, Khurshid Mattoo, Ramandeep Kaur

Comparative Evaluation in Linear Dimensions among Various Interocclusal Recording Materials at Various Mounting Times: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2020] [Month:November-December] [Volume:11] [Number:6] [Pages:6] [Pages No:462 - 467]

Keywords: Elastomer, Interocclusal records, Mounting, Programming articulator,Articulator

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1776  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: This in vitro study aims to investigate the longest possible dimensionally stable interocclusal recording materials among polyvinylsiloxane (PVS), polyether, zinc oxide eugenol, and wax, over a period of 1, 24, 48, 72, and 168 hours. Materials and methods: A stainless steel metal die with known dimensions was used to fabricate 30 samples for 4 different groups (materials) with each group having 5 different subgroups (time interval). Linear dimensional changes were determined by observing the amount of change at six different intersecting fixed points on each sample. While the dimensional change was measured in the percentage using mean and standard deviations, the nature of differences between the materials was determined using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). To find which specific groups were significantly different from each other, a Tukey HSD (post hoc) test was employed. The significance of differences was determined at three different levels of p value (≥0.05 = not significant, ≤0.05 = significant, and ≤0.001 = highly significant). Results: Dimensional changes were detected in bite wax (Aluwax) from as early as 1 hour, which relatively increased significantly. Among all materials, PVS (O bite) showed the least dimensional changes at all observed intervals closely followed by polyether (Ramitec) till the 3rd day of observation, differences between the two, however, were significant at 1 hour while being highly significant at remaining time intervals. Both zinc oxide eugenol (Bosworth) and bite registration wax (Aluwax) showed highly significant differences than the original dimensions and with both elastomers. Conclusion: The study concludes that for a delay of up to 7 days, polyvinyl siloxane interocclusal records show the least changes while for a delay of up to 3 days either polyvinyl siloxane or polyether-based interocclusal material can be used. Clinical significance: Polyvinyl siloxane is the material of choice for making interocclusal records presently. There should, however, be no delay in mounting the casts on the articulator irrespective of any type of material used to make an interocclusal record.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Syed Nahid Basheer, Tahani Mohammed Arishi, Nasreen Albar, Syed Wali Peeran, Syed Ali Peeran, Mohammed Zameer

Smartphone Addiction and Its Impact on Knowledge, Cognitive, and Psychomotor Skills of the Dental Students at Jazan University

[Year:2020] [Month:November-December] [Volume:11] [Number:6] [Pages:6] [Pages No:468 - 473]

Keywords: Dental students, Psychomotor skills, Smartphone addiction

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1778  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: Impact of smartphone (SP) addiction on knowledge, cognitive, and psychomotor skills of dental students at Jazan University. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 students (male and female) in the dentistry college, Jazan University. A validated questionnaire was used to collect the data of SP usage to check its addiction among the studied subjects. Participation in the study was voluntary. Once the responses from the participating students were obtained; they were classified as SP-addicted and SP non-addicted students. Later, their performance in the theory exam (for knowledge and cognitive skills) and clinical exam (for psychomotor skills) along with their addiction status and gender were correlated and compared by doing statistical analysis using the Chi-square test. Results: The results showed no significant negative impact of SP addiction on knowledge, cognitive, and psychomotor skills of dental students at Jazan University. Conclusion: This is the first study known to the authors that deals with the effects of SP addiction on the knowledge, cognitive, and psychomotor skills of dental students. The limitations of this study warrant further studies in this regard with a larger sample size and better design to further study the effects of SP use and addiction and make evidence-based recommendations on the use of SP and its effects on operative dentistry skills among dentists. Clinical significance: Understanding the effects of SP addiction on knowledge, cognitive, and psychomotor skills will help in modifying the behavior related to the use of SPs by dental students and improve their academic performance.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Mamatha GS Reddy, Sachin C Sarode, Gayatri Nayanar, Elizabeth C Dony

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-C as a Predictive Marker for Lymph Node Metastasis in Oral Cancer

[Year:2020] [Month:November-December] [Volume:11] [Number:6] [Pages:4] [Pages No:474 - 477]

Keywords: Lymphangiogenesis, Oral cancer, Vascular endothelial growth factor-C,Lymph node metastasis

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1774  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: Squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignancy occurring in the oral cavity. It causes local invasion and nodal metastasis leading to an increase in morbidity rate. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C has been the most widely studied molecule involved in lymphangiogenesis. The aim is to study the expression of VEGF-C in OSCC using the immunohistochemical (IHC) method and is correlated with nodal metastasis. Materials and methods: The study group consisted of 49 clinically and histopathologically diagnosed cases of OSCC. The tissue sections were subjected to IHC staining with anti-VEGF-C antibody and assessed for its expression and are correlated with the lymph node metastasis. Results: Out of 49 cases, 26 cases showed lymph node metastasis. On Chi-square analysis, the expression of VEGF-C was statistically significant with lymph node metastasis (p < 0.05). But, the expression of VEGF-C with clinicopathological staging and grading was not significant. Conclusion: The present study results suggest VEGF-C can be used as an indicator marker in lymph node metastasis. Clinical significance: Vascular endothelial growth factor-C marker can be recommended for the prediction of lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Alka Hande, Anand V Bansod, Akhilesh G Agrawal, Amol Gadbail, Amit M Reche

Estimation of Serum Copper and Zinc in Patients of Oral Submucous Fibrosis in Rural Population

[Year:2020] [Month:November-December] [Volume:11] [Number:6] [Pages:4] [Pages No:478 - 481]

Keywords: Oral submucous fibrosis, Serum copper, Serum zinc

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1773  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: To estimate the serum levels of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) patients residing in the rural area. Materials and methods: The current study included 100 participants after receiving their written consent. The participants were broadly divided into group I (OSMF patients) and group II (Control), comprised of 70 and 30 individuals, respectively. The participants in group I were further categorized into three groups based on their clinical severity into group IA, group IB, and group IC corresponding to clinical stage I, stage II, and stage III OSMF, respectively. Intravenous blood was collected under a sterile environment in the plane bulb. Serum was separated and samples were stored at −40°C until use. The samples were returned to room temperature and serum Cu and Zn levels were estimated by a calorimetric test using Dibromo-PAESA method described in the kit manufactured by Centronic GmbH. Results: There were 30 participants in group IA, 25 participants in group IB, and 15 participants in group IC. Serum Cu level was significantly increased in all OSMF patients (mean = 195.305 μg/dL) in comparison with the control group and there was an increase in serum Cu level with an increase in the disease severity. Zinc level was decreased with a mean value of 80.12 μg/dL in comparison with the control group. Besides, the value decreased with an increased disease severity. Conclusion: This study reveals that these trace elements are involved in the pathophysiology of OSMF. Serum Cu and Zn levels can be used as a diagnostic tool for the early diagnosis of OSMF. Clinical significance: Serum Cu and Zn can be used as a marker to assess the OSMF disease severity. Being an important entity in the pathogenic mechanism of OSMF, their estimation may prove to be useful to dental surgeons in planning the treatment to the patients.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Altaf H Shah, Amjad H Wyne, Shabnam Gulzar, Faris Y Asiri, Saad A Sheehan, Abdullah S Alghmlas, Hussam S Almadi, AlBandary H AlJameel

Effectiveness of Oral Health Promotion among Teachers and Parents of Special Care School Children in Al-Kharj, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

[Year:2020] [Month:November-December] [Volume:11] [Number:6] [Pages:6] [Pages No:482 - 487]

Keywords: Prevention, Toothbrushing, Unmet needs,Education, Plaque

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1779  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of oral health promotion among teachers and parents of Special Care School Children (SCSC) in Al-Kharj Province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods: Out of 936 children with special healthcare needs (CSHCN) in 18 schools that have programs to teach SCSC, 8 boys’ schools were chosen randomly. Fifty-six teachers and 74 parents of SCSC were involved in the oral health promotion of 163 SCSC, all males, aged 6–15 years. Oral health promotion was done at each school according to the specific needs of the group as well as the training of teachers. Parents and teachers were given training on the use of powered toothbrushing with commercially available fluoridated (1,450 ppm) toothpaste. Plaque scores were taken at baseline, at 3 months’ interval, and finally at 6 months. Oral health knowledge and attitude of teachers and parents of SCSC were evaluated at the start and then finally at 6 months. Results: The average mean plaque score for the whole SCSC group at baseline was 1.55 that reduced to 1.35 after 3 months and finally to 1.1 after 6 months. The reduction of plaque scores was statistically significant (p < 0.05) using a one-sample t-test after the incorporation of the supervised toothbrushing program. There was a significant change in the knowledge and attitude of the parents as well as the teachers of the SCSC after the incorporation of oral health promotion. Conclusion: Preventive oral health programs involving teachers and parents of SCSC resulted in significantly lower plaque scores. The program also resulted in improved oral health knowledge and attitude among teachers and parents of SCSC. Clinical significance: Oral health care remains the most frequently cited unmet health need for CSHCN. In view of high unmet need and problems faced with access to oral health care, it is significant that preventive oral health measures are incorporated into the daily regime for SCSC. Oral health promotion in the form of better plaque control along with improved oral health knowledge and attitude of teachers as well as parents of SCSC is recommended.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Goldy Rathee, Monika Tandan, Rakesh Mittal

Evaluation of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Commercially Available Herbal Products as Irrigants and Medicaments in Primary Endodontic Infections: In Vivo Study

[Year:2020] [Month:November-December] [Volume:11] [Number:6] [Pages:6] [Pages No:488 - 493]

Keywords: Tulsi juice extract,Antimicrobial, Chlorhexidine gluconate, Herbal medicine, Neem juice extract, Primary endodontic infection

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1787  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: The purpose of this study was to comparatively evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of two commercially available herbal products as root canal irrigants and medicaments—an in vivo study. Materials and methods: Thirty patients of age group 15–50 years with single-rooted teeth were selected. After access opening and working length (WL) determination, the pretreatment sample (S1) was obtained using a sterile paper point dipped in transport media. Biomechanical preparation (BMP) was done with master apical file size #40 and step-back up to size #60. The patient was randomly divided into three groups and irrigation was done. Group I—2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), group II—neem juice extract, and group III—tulsi juice extract. Post-instrumentation sample (S2) was taken in the same manner. Canals were dried and three solutions were dispensed as intracanal medicaments. A double seal of Cavit was placed. After 7 days, post-medicament sample (S3) was collected in the same manner as S1. Microbiological samples (S1, S2, S3) were incubated and then plated on brain heart infusion agar and the colonies were counted. Collected data were statistically analyzed using repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: The results of this study demonstrated that a statistically significant reduction was seen among all the groups during the intragroup comparison. The reduction in S3 from S1 was found to be significantly higher than that found in S2 from S1, which was further significantly higher than that found in S3 from S2. In intergroup comparison, the difference in colony counts reached the level of statistical significance in S2 from S1 and in S3 from S1 in all the three experimental solutions. Among these stages, a significant reduction was seen in group I and group II, group I and group III. Conclusion: Therefore, within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that herbal products have shown significant antimicrobial activity in primary endodontic infections when compared to 2% CHX. Hence, they can be recommended as endodontic irrigants and medicaments. Clinical significance: Herbal products can be recommended as endodontic irrigants and medicaments.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Jittima Pumklin, Panada Taechasubamorn, Adison Luehong, Sureerat Pramot, Chanchira Panyasoet, Thanaporn Sowithayasakul

Relationship between Temporomandibular Disorder and Risk Factors in Health Science Students: A Cross-sectional Study

[Year:2020] [Month:November-December] [Volume:11] [Number:6] [Pages:7] [Pages No:494 - 500]

Keywords: Health science student, Parafunctional habit, Prevalence, Risk factors, Temporomandibular disorder

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1786  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is a collective term involving masticatory muscles, temporomandibular joint (TMJ), and problems of associated structures. Several studies have demonstrated factors related to TMD signs and symptoms. However, these data are still limited in Thailand. This study aimed to (i) investigate the prevalence of TMD and (ii) to clarify the relationship between TMD and risk factors in Health Science students, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand. Materials and methods: Three hundred ninety-four subjects participated in the study. Temporomandibular disorder diagnosis was accomplished by a simplified tool for patient screening using a TMD questionnaire. Demographic data and parafunctional habits were collected by a self-assessed questionnaire. Suanprung Stress Test-20 (SPST-20) was used for stress level detection. The data were analyzed by independent t-test, Chi-square test, or Fisher\'s exact test at p value < 0.05. Results: There were 133 males and 261 females. The mean age was 21.19 ± 1.39 years old. The prevalence of TMD was 32.7%. Trauma history, degree majors, clenching, chewing gum, cheek-biting, lip-biting, unilateral chewing, and stress were significantly correlated with TMD. In contrast, gender, age, academic year, history of orthodontic treatment, and some parafunctional habits indicated no relationship with TMD. Conclusion: One-third of health science students at Naresuan University had TMD symptoms. Clinical significance: The most common symptom was TMJ sound and several types of parafunctional habits were associated with TMD.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Lakshminarayana Surendra, Vanishri C Haragannavar, Roopa S Rao, Samudrala V Sowmya, Dominic Augustine

Visualization of Tongue Morphology: An Emerging Mode of Personal Identification

[Year:2020] [Month:November-December] [Volume:11] [Number:6] [Pages:5] [Pages No:501 - 505]

Keywords: Oral cavity, Photography, Tongue,Clinical examination, Forensic dentistry

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1770  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: The tongue is the only internal organ well encased within the oral cavity, which can be assessed easily by means of inspection and palpation. The shape and physiologic texture of the tongue remains unique to a person. There are various studies on identification of a person using fingerprint, iris scan, skin color, etc., but these modes of identification could be altered by external factors. Hence, we designed a study to identify a person by using the tongue as an identifying tool through the photographic method. Correlation of morphological parameters of the tongue was done through clinical examination and photographic images. Materials and methods: Total 30 walk-in subjects comprising 15 females and 15 males with an age range 18–65 years were considered in the study. The subjects were analyzed for morphological features of the tongue by clinical examination and the photographic method. Results: Among 30 subjects, 13 cases showed smooth texture of the tongue, fissured tongue was observed in 14 cases, and 3 cases showed mild fissured. Shape of the tongue was found to be hammered in 10 cases; 9 ellipsoid and 11 rounded shapes were observed. Apex of the tongue was sharp in 9 cases and 21 cases showed a rounded appearance. No cases showed a septate shape. Color of the tongue was whitish in 2 cases, 23 cases were pale pink, and 5 cases were pink. Conclusion: To conclude, the tongue could replace the other common biometric tools due to its unique features. Further studies with larger sample and advanced techniques are necessary. Clinical significance: Thus, the tongue could be used as a tool for personal identification by the photographic method.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Fareedi M Ali, Alok Dubey, Sameena Parveen, Ather A Syed, Sheetal Mujoo

Sushruta: The Unrecognized Pioneer in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

[Year:2020] [Month:November-December] [Volume:11] [Number:6] [Pages:4] [Pages No:506 - 509]

Keywords: Oral and maxillofacial surgery, Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1777  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: To highlight the important contribution of Sushruta in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgeries. Background: Sushruta is well recognized for his innovative methods in plastic surgery. Not much is written on his contribution in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery and his contribution remains unrecognized. Review results: Reference and passage in relation to oral and maxillofacial surgeries were identified by browsing “An English translation of the Sushruta Samhita” (Vol I, II, III) by Kaviraj Kunjala Bhishagratna and available literature from peer-reviewed indexed journals. An oral and maxillofacial surgical procedure like extraction of teeth, surgical extraction of wisdom teeth, fracture of jaws and nasal bone, dislocation of the mandible, use of wires to stabilize loose teeth and fractured jaws; rhinoplasty, otoplasty, cleft lip, and description of instruments like extraction forceps, suture needle, and materials has been described by Sushruta in his book Sushruta Samhita. Conclusion: The contribution of Sushruta in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery hardly got due recognition, which it deserved. Clinical significance: The pioneering descriptions of oral diseases, the principles of oral and maxillofacial surgery in the Samhita remain valid in our contemporary understanding. He was the first surgeon who emphasized cadaver dissection for medical education, sterilization and asepsis procedures for surgery, use of wine as an anesthetic to reduce pain during the surgery, and also practical training for tooth extractions.

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