World Journal of Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 2 , ISSUE 4 ( October-December, 2011 ) > List of Articles


Dental Bleaching with 35 and 38% Hydrogen Peroxide and Immersion in Soft Drink: Analysis by Reflectance and Fourier Transform-Raman Spectroscopy

Carlos Rocha Gomes Torres, Raffaela Di Iorio Jeronymo, Eduardo Galera da Silva, Maria Filomena Rocha Lima Huhtala, Ana Paula Martins Gomes, Gustavo de Luca Alves, Egberto Munin

Citation Information : Torres CR, Jeronymo RD, da Silva EG, Huhtala MF, Gomes AP, de Luca Alves G, Munin E. Dental Bleaching with 35 and 38% Hydrogen Peroxide and Immersion in Soft Drink: Analysis by Reflectance and Fourier Transform-Raman Spectroscopy. World J Dent 2011; 2 (4):285-291.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1099

Published Online: 01-12-2011

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2011; The Author(s).



The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dental bleaching with 35 and 38% hydrogen peroxide and soft drink immersion on the chemistry and color of the bovine enamel fragments before and after treatment using reflectance and Fourier transform-Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman spectroscopy).

Materials and methods

Sixty bovine enamel fragments were prepared and randomly divided into six experimental groups according to the hydrogen peroxide gel concentration or immersion in soft drink (n = 10): G1-Whiteness HP Maxx; G2-Whiteness HP Maxx + light lemon coke immersion; G3-Opalescence Xtra Boost; G4-Opalescence Xtra Boost + light lemon coke immersion; G5-Whiteform Perox Red Form gel; G6-Whiteform Perox Red Form gel + light lemon coke immersion. The bleaching treatment was performed in two sessions with a 7 days interval and the analysis before treatments were used as control (baseline). Samples were submitted to reflectance and FT-Raman spectroscopy analysis to evaluate surface mineral content and the reflectance before and after treatments.


There was no significant statistical difference among the bleaching agents in the reflectance analysis (p = 0.63). The FT-Raman spectroscopy data showed significant loss in enamel mineral content after immersion in the light lemon coke and statistical significant differences for the interactions between ‘bleaching agent’ and ‘immersion in soft drink’ (p = 0.03) and between ‘bleaching agent’ and ‘time’ (p = 0.04). With regards to the whitened specimens, the Opalescence Xtra Boost agent demonstrated the greatest loss in enamel mineral content.


All bleaching agents exhibited great bleaching potential in reflectance analysis. This highly concentrated hydrogen peroxide gel (38%) changed significantly the enamel mineral content with or without immersion in soft drink. The specimens immersed in soft drink showed significant loss in enamel mineral content.

Clinical relevance

Some investigations have shown that hydrogen peroxide and beverages can modify enamel dental components, but more studies are necessary to explain its effects.

PDF Share
  1. Dental esthetic satisfaction, received and desired dental treatments for improvement of esthetics. Indian J Dent Res Apr-June 2009;20(2):195-200.
  2. Penetration of 38% hydrogen peroxide into the pulp chamber in bovine and human teeth submitted to office bleach technique. J Endod Sep 2007;33(9):1074-77.
  3. Penetration of 35% hydrogen peroxide into the pulp chamber in bovine teeth after LED or Nd:YAG laser activation. Eur J Esthet Dent 2009 Spring;4(1):82-88.
  4. Spectrophotometric evaluation of the efficacy of a new in-office bleaching technique. Quintessence Int Apr 2008;39(4):299-306.
  5. An overview of tooth discoloration: Extrinsic, intrinsic and internalized stains. Dent Update Oct 2005;32(8):463-64, 446-68, 471.
  6. Effects of hydrogen peroxide on the light reflectance and morphology of bovine enamel. J Oral Rehabil 2002;29:471-77.
  7. Spectrophotometric and visual evaluation of vital tooth bleaching employing different carbamide peroxide concentrations. Dent Mater Feb 2007;23(2):165-69.
  8. Undesirable and adverse effects of tooth-whitening products: A review. Clin Oral Investig Feb 2010;14(1):1-10.
  9. Enamel susceptibility to red wine staining after 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching. J Appl Oral Sci May-June 2008;16(3): 201-04.
  10. Influence of bleaching agents on surface roughness of sound or eroded dental enamel specimens. J Compilation 2010;22(6):391-99.
  11. The effect of strip, tray and office peroxide bleaching systems on enamel surfaces in vitro. Dent Mater Nov 2008;24(11):1495-500.
  12. A review of the safety of tooth bleaching. Dent Update Dec 2009;36(10):604-6, 608-10, 612-14.
  13. The bleaching of teeth: A review of the literature. J Dent Aug 2006;34(7):412-19.
  14. Changes in bovine enamel after treatment with a 30% hydrogen peroxide bleaching agent. Dent Mater J Dec 2004;23(4): 517-21.
  15. Effects of hydrogen peroxide bleaching strips on tooth surface color, surface microhardness, surface and subsurface ultrastructure, and microchemical (Raman spectroscopic) composition. J Clin Dent 2006;17(3):72-78.
  16. Fourier Transform-Raman and reflectance studies on dental enamel bleached with hydrogen peroxide activated using a light-emitting diode-laser system. Photomed Laser Surg. 2009;27(6):1-7.
  17. Influence of study design on the impact of bleaching agents on dental enamel microhardness: A review. Dent Mater Feb 2009;25(2):143-57.
  18. Changes in enamel surface roughness and adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to enamel after vital bleaching. J Dent Nov 2003;31(8):543-48.
  19. Bleaching using 30% hydrogen peroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate. Dental Mater J 2011;30(2): 193-98.
  20. FT-Raman and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometric analyses of enamel submitted to 38% hydrogen peroxide bleaching, an acidic beverage and simulated brushing. Photomed Laser Surg June 2010;28(3):391-96.
  21. Investigation of the effects of 30% hydrogen peroxide on human tooth enamel by Raman scattering and laser-induced fluorescence. J Biomed Opt Jan-Feb 2008;13(1):014019.
  22. Evaluation of the erosive potential of soft drinks. Eur J Dent Jan 2007;1(1):10-13.
  23. Human and bovine enamel erosion under ‘singledrink’ conditions. Eur J Oral Sci Dec 2010;118(6):604-09.
  24. The pH of tooth-whitening products. J Can Dent Assoc Sep 2000;66(8):421-26.
  25. Effects of elevated hydrogen peroxide ‘strip’ bleaching on surface and subsurface enamel including subsurface histomorphology, microchemical composition and fluorescence changes. J Dent June 2007;35(6):457-66.
  26. In vitro evaluation of the effectiveness of bleaching agents activated by different light sources. J Prosthodont Apr 2009;18(3):249-54.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.