World Journal of Dentistry

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VOLUME 15 , ISSUE 5 ( May, 2024 ) > List of Articles

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Immunohistochemical Expression of β-catenin in Different Grades of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Rezhat Abbas, Suheel H Latoo, Mohammad S Dar

Keywords : β-catenin, Immunohistochemistry, Oral squamous cell carcinoma, Tumor markers, Wnt pathway

Citation Information : Abbas R, Latoo SH, Dar MS. Immunohistochemical Expression of β-catenin in Different Grades of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. World J Dent 2024; 15 (5):401-405.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2433

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 28-06-2024

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2024; The Author(s).


Abstract

Aim: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common oral malignancy, accounting for up to 80–90% of all oral malignancies. This occurs as a result of the multistep accumulation of heterogeneous genetic changes. β-catenin binds with E-cadherin to form a cell adhesion complex and acts as a tumor suppressor by restricting the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. When β-catenin mutates or loses contact with E-cadherin, it translocates to the nucleus and upregulates transcription factors (TCFs). We analyzed and compared β-catenin expression in various phases of OSCC. Materials and methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 60 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks (20 well-differentiated OSCC, 20 moderately differentiated OSCC, and 20 poorly differentiated OSCC). Diagnosis was made using hematoxylin and eosin, and oral mucosa was used as a control. Results: Statistically substantial downregulation of β-catenin was seen with increasing OSCC grades. As the disease progressed, β-catenin moved from the membrane to the cytoplasm. Nuclear positivity was found in poorly differentiated squamous cell cancer. Nuclear migration activates TCFs, which promote cell proliferation. Conclusion: The study revealed a good prognostic role of both β-catenin in OSCC. Clinical significance: The marker can be used for prognostic as well as therapeutic purposes.


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