World Journal of Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 14 , ISSUE 7 ( July, 2023 ) > List of Articles


Effect of Nanoparticles on Mechanical Properties of Chemically Activated Provisional PMMA Resin: An In Vitro Study

Asmath Jehan, Ahila S Chidambaranathan, Muthukumar Balasubramanium

Keywords : Autopolymerized polymethyl methacrylate resin, Flexural strength, Nanoparticles, Surface hardness

Citation Information : Jehan A, Chidambaranathan AS, Balasubramanium M. Effect of Nanoparticles on Mechanical Properties of Chemically Activated Provisional PMMA Resin: An In Vitro Study. World J Dent 2023; 14 (7):617-624.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2264

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-09-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2023; The Author(s).


Aim: To evaluate the flexural strength and surface hardness of chemically activated provisional polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin incorporated with 2.5% zirconia, titanium, and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanoparticles after 24 hours in distilled water and 2 weeks in artificial saliva after fabrication. Materials and methods: According to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 10477:2018, a rectangular-shaped die with 25 mm l × 2 mm w × 2 mm h and wheel shape die with a diameter of 15 mm and thickness of 1 mm were made to investigate the flexural strength and surface hardness. A total of 160 samples were prepared and categorized as groups F (flexural strength) and S (surface hardness). Groups F and S were further subdivided into two groups—group I (24 hours in distilled water) and group II (2 weeks in artificial saliva), then they were subdivided into group A (control) no nanoparticle, group II (2.5% zirconia), group III (2.5%titanium oxide), and group IV (2.5% Al2O3). A total of 10 samples were fabricated in each category the flexural strength test was done using a universal testing machine and the hardness test was done using a digital Vickers microhardness tester. The obtained values were statistically analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD) test at a significant level of p < 0.05. Results: The mean values of flexural strength of autopolymerized provisional PMMA resin control, zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and Al2O3 nanoparticles reinforced groups in 24 hours in distilled water were 97.96, 152.81, 140.79, and 137.85 MPa, respectively, and 2 weeks in artificial saliva were 98.43, 150.43, 141.06, and 139.00 MPa, respectively. The surface hardness of autopolymerized provisional PMMA resin control, ZrO2, TiO2, and Al2O3 nanoparticles reinforced groups in 24 hours in distilled water was 28, 33.9, 32, and 30.8 Vickers hardness test (VHN), respectively, and 2 weeks in artificial saliva were 28.7, 34, 32, and 32 VHN, respectively. Conclusion: Autopolymerized provisional PMMA resin reinforced with 2.5% zirconium nanoparticles showed statistically significant flexural strength and surface hardness than conventional provisional PMMA resin and 2.5% TiO2 and 2.5% Al2O3 nanoparticles reinforced groups after 24 hours in distilled water and 2 weeks in artificial saliva after fabrication. Clinical significance: The provisional restorations are subjected to masticatory forces during function and are easily prone to fracture. The use of autopolymerized provisional PMMA resin reinforced with 2.5% zirconium nanoparticles increased the mechanical properties of the provisional restoration; hence, it can be recommended for provisional restorations to increase the life span in clinical practice.

PDF Share
  1. Felton DA. Edentulism and comorbid factors. Tex Dent J 2010;127(4):389–401. PMID: 20446489.
  2. Thakur K, Nagpal A, Gupta R, et al. Evaluation of the transverse strength of the heat cure PMMA resin reinforced with various concentrations of two different nanoparticles: an in vitro study. J Adv Med Med Res 2019;29:1–8. DOI: 10.9734/jammr/2019/v29i830116
  3. Gilbert GH, Meng X, Duncan RP, et al. Incidence of tooth loss and prosthodontic dental care: effect on chewing difficulty onset, a component of oral health related quality of life. J Am Geriatr Soc 2004;52(6):880–885. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2004.52253.x
  4. Mathur S, Shah A, Makwana R, et al. Provisional restorative materials in fixed prosthodontics: a comprehensive review. B U J O D 2013;3:50–57.
  5. Saisadan D, Manimaran P, Meenapriya PK. In vitro comparative evaluation of mechanical properties of temporary restorative materials used in fixed partial denture. J Pharm Bioall Sci 2016;8 (Suppl 1):S105–S109. DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.191936
  6. Astudillo-Rubio D, Delgado-Gaete A, Bellot-Arcís C, et al. Correction: mechanical properties of provisional dental materials: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 2018;13(4):e0196264. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0193162
  7. Debye K, Tuna T, Bishti S, et al. Influence of additional reinforcement of fixed long-term temporary restorations on fracture load. J Prosthodont Res 2018;62(4):416–421. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpor.2018.03.001
  8. Burke FT, Murray MC, Shortall AC. Trends in indirect dentistry: 6. Provisional restorations, more than just a temporary. Dent Update 2005;32(8):443–452. DOI: 10.12968/denu.2005.32.8.443
  9. Oleiwi JK, Hamad QA, Jabbar H. Studying the effect of natural bamboo and rice husk powders on compressive strength and hardness of acrylic resin. Iraqi J Mech Mater Eng 2019;19:105–113. DOI: 10.32852/iqjfmme.v19i1.265
  10. Gad MM, Abualsaud R, Rahoma A, et al. Effect of zirconium oxide nanoparticles addition on the optical and tensile properties of polymethyl methacrylate denture base material. Int J Nanomedicine 2018;13:283–292. DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S152571
  11. Saad-Eldeen MA, AL-Fallal AA, Abouelatta OB. Effect of zirconium oxide reinforcement on epithelial oral mucosa, immunoglobulin and surface roughness of complete acrylic heat-cured denture. Egypt Dent Associat 2007;53:941–946.
  12. Aljafery AM. Flexural resistance and impact resistance of high-impact acrylic resin with addition of TiO2-Al2O3 nanoparticles. Nano Biomed Eng 2018;10(1):40–45. DOI: 10.5101/nbe.v10i1.p40-45
  13. Sodagar A, Bahador A, Khalil S, et al. The effect of TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles on flexural strength of poly (methyl methacrylate) acrylic resins. J Prosthodont Res 2013;57(1):15–19. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpor.2012.05.001
  14. ISO 1. ISO 10477:2018(en). Dentistry-Polymer based crown and veneer materials. third edition
  15. Lee HH, Lee CJ, Asaoka K. Correlation in the mechanical properties of acrylic denture base resins. Dent Mater J 2012;31(1):157–164. DOI: 10.4012/dmj.2011-205
  16. Patras M, Naka O, Doukoudakis S, et al. Management of provisional restorations deficiencies: a literature review. J Esthet Restor Dent 2012;24(1):26–38. DOI: 10.1111/j.1708-8240.2011.00467.x
  17. Federick DR. The provisional fixed partial denture. J Prosthet Dent 1975;34(5):520–526. DOI: 10.1016/0022-3913(75)90039-6
  18. Burns DR, Beck DA, Nelson SK. A review of selected dental literature on contemporary provisional fixed prosthodontic treatment: report of the Committee on Research in Fixed Prosthodontics of the Academy of Fixed Prosthodontics. J Prosthet Dent 2003;90(5):474–497. DOI: 10.1016/s0022-3913(03)00259-2
  19. Nejatidanesh F, Momeni G, Savabi O. Flexural strength of interim resin materials for fixed prosthodontics. J Prosthodont 2009;18(6):507–511. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-849X.2009.00473.x
  20. Akova T, Ozkomur A, Uysal H. Effect of food-simulating liquids on the mechanical properties of provisional restorative materials. Dent Mater 2006;22(12):1130–1134. DOI: 10.1016/ 2005.09.009
  21. Söderholm KJ, Roberts MJ. Influence of water exposure on the tensile strength of composites. J Dent Res 1990;69(12):1812–1816. DOI: 10.1177/00220345900690120501
  22. Lee SY, Greener EH, Mueller HJ, et al. Effect of food and oral simulating fluids on dentine bond and composite strength. J Dent 1994;22(6):352–359. DOI: 10.1016/0300-5712(94)90088-4
  23. Sun L, Gibson RF, Gordaninejad F, et al. Energy absorption capability of nanocomposites: a review. Compos Sci Technol 2009;69(14):2392–2409. DOI:
  24. Mabrurkar V, Habbu N, Hashmi SW, et al. In-vitro investigation to evaluate the flexural bond strengths of three commercially available ultra low fusing ceramic systems to Grade II Titanium. J Int Oral Health 2013;5(5):101–107. PMID: 24324312.
  25. Gad MM, Fouda SM, Al-Harbi FA, et al. PMMA denture base material enhancement: a review of fiber, filler, and nanofiller addition. Int J Nanomedicine 2017;17(12):3801–3812. DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S130722
  26. Hamouda IM, Beyari MM. Addition of glass fibers and titanium dioxide nanoparticles to the acrylic resin denture base material: comparative study with the conventional and high impact types. Oral Health Dent Manag 2014;13(1):107–112. PMID: 24603926.
  27. Safi IN, Ali M. Evaluation the effect of modified nano-fillers addition on some properties of heat cured acrylic denture base material. J Baghdad Coll Dent 2011;23:23–29.
  28. DeBoer J, Vermilyea SG, Brady RE. The effect of carbon fiber orientation on the fatigue resistance and bending properties of two denture resins. J Prosthet Dent 1984;51(1):119–121. DOI: 10.1016/s0022-3913(84)80117-1.
  29. Harini P, Mohamed K, Padmanabhan TV. Effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the flexural strength of polymethylmethacrylate: an in vitro study. Indian J Dent Res 2014;25(4):459–463. DOI: 10.1016/s0022-3913(84)80117-1
  30. Asmath J, Ahila SC, Muthukumar B. Evaluation of flexural strength and surface hardness of heat activated provisional PMMA resin reinforced with nanoparticles-an in vitro study. J Med P'ceutical Allied Sci 2022;11:4340–4348. DOI: 10.22270/jmpas.V11I1.2171
  31. Hasratiningsih Z, Takarini V, Cahyanto A, et al. Hardness evaluation of PMMA reinforced with two different calcinations temperatures of rO2-Al2O3-SiO2 filler system. IOP Conf Ser Mater Sci Eng 2017;172:012067. DOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/172/1/012067
  32. Asar NV, Albayrak H, Korkmaz T, et al. Influence of various metal oxides on mechanical and physical properties of heat-cured polymethyl methacrylate denture base resins. J Adv Prosthodont 2013;5(3): 241–247. DOI: 10.4047/jap.2013.5.3.241
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.