Background: Various surface treatments have been carried out to improve the stability of the orthodontic mini-implants (OMIs) and reduce the failure rate. The current review aimed to systematically analyze and report on the evidence about the survival rates of OMIs that are subjected to surface treatment.
Objective: To report on survival rates of OMIs subjected to surface treatment.
Materials and methods: Search—a complete search on the survival rate of surface-treated OMIs across the following electronic databases PubMed, Cochrane, Google Scholar, and a manual search of orthodontic journals was performed till December 2022. Studies were selected on the basis of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines.
Results: Four randomized controlled trials (RCT) and three prospective clinical trials (PCTs) were included in this review. A total of 379 mini-implants were assessed, out of which 193 OMIs were surface treated. Of the seven studies assessed, four RCTs had a moderate/unclear risk of bias (ROB). Out of three prospective studies, two were of poor quality, and one was moderate. All studies reported higher survival rates of surface-treated OMIs than the nontreated OMIs. No significant differences between surface-treated and nontreated OMIs were noted for insertion torques and mobility.
Conclusion: Surface treatment of OMIs significantly improved the survival rate. Insertion torques and mobility were not affected by the surface treatment of OMIs. These results should be interpreted with caution as the overall ROB in the studies included was moderate to high.
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