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VOLUME 13 , ISSUE S2 ( Supplementary Issue 2, 2022 ) > List of Articles

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Assessment of Salivary Lactate Dehydrogenase as a Noninvasive Biomarker for Chronic Periodontitis and Tooth Loss in Type II Diabetics

Sunila B Sangappa, Sahana Alwar Mandayam Krishnian, Srinath M Kenkere, Ravindra Shivamurthy

Keywords : Case-control study, Chronic periodontitis, Diabetes mellitus, Salivary biomarker, Salivary lactate dehydrogenase, Tooth loss

Citation Information : Sangappa SB, Krishnian SA, Kenkere SM, Shivamurthy R. Assessment of Salivary Lactate Dehydrogenase as a Noninvasive Biomarker for Chronic Periodontitis and Tooth Loss in Type II Diabetics. World J Dent 2022; 13 (S2):S203-S212.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2150

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 31-12-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


Abstract

Aim: This study aims at evaluating the association between salivary lactate dehydrogenase (SLDH) levels among type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects with chronic periodontitis (CP) and tooth loss to check the diagnostic value of SLDH as a noninvasive biomarker. Materials and methods: Seventy-six subjects aged from 30 to 70 years with at least 15 remaining teeth were selected for the study. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels confirmed diabetic status while CP was assessed based on periodontal parameters with a full-mouth periodontal examination, following which the subjects were classified into four groups. Group I: controls—systemically healthy individuals (HbA1c levels ≤6.4%), without CP; group II: non-T2DM with CP—systemically healthy individuals (HbA1c ≤6.4%) with CP; group III: T2DM (HbA1c ≥6.5%) with CP; group IV: T2DM (HbA1c ≥6.5%) with CP and tooth loss due to periodontitis. Unstimulated whole saliva in fasting was collected from subjects and quantitatively assessed using a colorimetric lactate dehydrogenase assay kit. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post hoc test was used for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was set at 5% level (p < 0.05). Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient compared the relationship between different variables. Results: ANOVA of the four groups’ mean scores yielded significant variation in SLDH levels (F = 11.2889, p < 0.05). The relationship between variables of HbA1c levels with SLDH activity levels (mU/mL) and average periodontal pocket depth (APPD) was statistically significant and a moderate correlation was found with Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient. Conclusion: Study outcomes indicate a high prevalence of CP in T2DM. The severity of periodontitis and tooth loss significantly altered LDH enzyme activity and exhibited elevated LDH levels indicating a valuable noninvasive salivary biomarker in the detection of periodontitis. Clinical significance: In view of saliva as a mainstay noninvasive screening method of periodontal disease, SLDH can assume a significant role in detecting elevated glycemic levels and distinguishing the severity of periodontitis. Routine use in general practice and dental offices can ensure early detection and monitoring.


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