Citation Information :
Sowmithradevi S, Shantha SK, Jain RK. Correlation of Forehead Type with Maxillary Incisor Inclination in Dravidian South Indian Population: A Prospective Study. World J Dent 2022; 13 (6):606-610.
Aim: To correlate maxillary central incisors labiolingual inclination (LI) with forehead inclination (FI) and assess the anteroposterior (AP) position of maxillary central incisor (CI) in Dravidian South Indian population with different forehead types using photographs.
Materials and methods: This photograph-based study included 150 class I occlusion participants with good facial harmony equally divided into three groups (group A—angulated, group B—straight, and group C—rounded) based on forehead type. Reference points and lines were marked on the right profile full smile photographs of the participants taken in natural head position with CI and forehead in full view, and FI, II, and AP of CI in all groups were measured and tabulated. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation test, and linear regression analysis were performed.
Results: Incisor inclination was highest in group A (4.31 ± 2.50) and lowest in group B (1.01 ± 2.04). Pearson's correlation test revealed a statistically significant correlation between FI and II (p < 0.05). About 61.4% of the population had maxillary CI positioned anterior to forehead facial-axis point (FFA), 25.7% posterior to FFA, and 12.8% at FFA.
Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed a moderate correlation (r = 0.696) between FI and II that shows inclination of FI can be used to determine the II. Majority of the study population (61.4%) had maxillary CI positioned anterior to FFA, which is considered the most esthetic position of incisors when finishing orthodontic treatment.
Clinical significance: Forehead inclination assessed clinically can be used to determine the incisor inclination.
Nivethigaa B. Perception of smile esthetics—a questionnaire based study. Biosci Biotechnol Res Commun 2020;13:1321–1330. DOI: 10.21786/bbrc/13.3/51
Sarver DM, Ackerman MB. Dynamic smile visualization and quantification: part 1. Evolution of the concept and dynamic records for smile capture. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2003;124(1):4–12. DOI: 10.1016/s0889-5406(03)00306-8
Ackerman JL, Proffit WR, Sarver DM. The emerging soft tissue paradigm in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. Clin Orthod Res 1999;2(2):49–52. DOI: 10.1111/ocr.19126.96.36.199
Kerns LL, Silveira AM, Kerns DG, et al. Esthetic preference of the frontal and profile views of the same smile. J Esthet Dent 1997;9(2):76–85. DOI: 10.1111/j.1708-8240.1997.tb00921.x
Brunzel S, Kern M, Freitag S, et al. Aesthetic effect of minor changes in incisor angulation: an internet evaluation. J Oral Rehabil 2006;33(6):430–435. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2842.2005.01573.x
Andrews WA. AP relationship of the maxillary central incisors to the forehead in adult white females. Angle Orthod 2008;78(4):662–669. DOI: 10.2319/0003-3219(2008)078[0662:arotmc]2.0.co;2
Schlosser JB, Brian Preston C, Lampasso J. The effects of computer-aided anteroposterior maxillary incisor movement on ratings of facial attractiveness. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2005;127(1):17–24. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2003.11.025
Ajmera AJ, Toshniwal NG. Assessing the AP position of maxillary central incisor using forehead: a smiling profile photographic study. J Indian Orthod Soc 2012;46(4):188–192. DOI: 10.1177/0974909820120403
Hujoel P, Hollender L, Bollen A-M, et al. Radiographs associated with one episode of orthodontic therapy. J Dent Educ 2006;70(10):1061–1065. DOI: 10.1002/j.0022-0337.2006.70.10.tb04178.x
Andrews LF. The six elements of orofacial harmony. The Andrews J Orthod Orofac Harmony 2000;1:1–9. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2015.09.011
Gidaly MP, Tremont T, Lin CP, et al. Optimal antero-posterior position of the maxillary central incisors and its relationship to the forehead in adult African American females. Angle Orthod 2019;89(1):123–128. DOI: 10.2319/120517-833.1
Kim JM. AP Relationship of the Maxillary Central Incisors to the Forehead in Adult Korean Females. DOI: 10.33915/etd.638
Mohan R, Navaneethan R, Balakrishnan N. Photographic assessment of cephalometric measurements in skeletal class I subjects: a comparative study. Eur J Mol Clin Med 2020;7(1):1786–1796. DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2017/25042.10075
Pandian KS, Krishnan S, Kumar SA. Angular photogrammetric analysis of the soft-tissue facial profile of Indian adults. Indian J Dent Res 2018;29(2):137–143. DOI: 10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_496_16
Zou B, Zhou Y, Lowe AA, et al. Changes in anteroposterior position and inclination of the maxillary incisors after surgical-orthodontic treatment of skeletal class III malocclusions. J Cranio Maxillofacial Surg 2015;43(10):1986–1993. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcms.2014.12.013
Abrol V, Abrol K. Anteroposterior relationship of maxillary central incisor to forehead: a photographic study. J World Feder Orthod 2018;7(4):150–155. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejwf.2018.08.003
Adams M, Andrews W, Tremont T, et al. Anteroposterior relationship of the maxillary central incisors to the forehead in adult white males. Orthodontics 2013;14(1):e2–e9. DOI: 10.11607/ortho.906
Zebeib AM, Naini FB. Variability of the inclination of anatomic horizontal reference planes of the craniofacial complex in relation to the true horizontal line in orthognathic patients. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2014;146(6):740–747. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2014.08.012
Hernández-Alfaro F, Giralt-Hernando M, Brabyn PJ, et al. Variation between natural head orientation and Frankfort horizontal planes in orthognathic surgery patients: 187 consecutive cases. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021;50(9):1226–1232. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijom.2021.02.011
Cho S-W, Byun S-H, Yi S, et al. Sagittal relationship between the maxillary central incisors and the forehead in digital twins of Korean adult females. J Pers Med 2021;11(3):203. DOI: 10.3390/jpm11030203
Basamtabar M, Imani MM, Safari-Faramani R, et al. Relationship of anteroposterior position of maxillary central incisors with the forehead in an adult Iranian subpopulation: a cross-sectional study. Int Orthod 2021;19(3):480–486. DOI: 10.1016/j.ortho.2021.05.006
Boyles-Horan M. Identifying the Esthetically Optimal AP Position of Maxillary Incisors in Caucasian Females; 2018. DOI:10.33915/etd.5248