World Journal of Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 13 , ISSUE 6 ( November-December, 2022 ) > List of Articles


The Effect of Addition Nanoparticles Kraft Lignin to the Acrylic-based Provisional Restorations Crown and Bridge

Ban M Jassim, Rasha Mehdi, Intisar J Ismail, Farah J Ibrahem

Keywords : Kraft lignin, Nanoparticles, Polymethyl methacrylate

Citation Information : Jassim BM, Mehdi R, Ismail IJ, Ibrahem FJ. The Effect of Addition Nanoparticles Kraft Lignin to the Acrylic-based Provisional Restorations Crown and Bridge. World J Dent 2022; 13 (6):574-581.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2096

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 26-08-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


Aim and objective: To evaluate the effect of adding nanoform of biopolymer kraft lignin (KL) as reinforcement material as it had many functional groups to the acrylic-based provisional restorations crown and bridge for improving their properties. Materials and methods: The specimens were grouped according to the powder of nano KL which was added to the acrylic resin after sonication with the methyl methacrylate monomer in percentages of 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0% to be in four groups with the control without addition. In total, 112 specimens (28 per each test) were cured and fabricated to evaluate some mechanical properties, for transverse strength test, hardness test, surface roughness, and specimen for impact strength test, results were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results: Highly significant increase was obtained (p < 0.05) among the groups, in transverse strength (87.3243 N/mm2); impact strength (9.1071 kJ/m2) at 1.0 wt% group, which is the highest value; and hardness number concentration of KL 1.0% which had the highest mean value (84.0943); while the result indicates an increase in the surface roughness values than the control. Conclusion: Using such material KL in nanoform has a positive effect on the mechanical properties which are tested in acrylic used for crown and bridge, especially in the (1.0%) addition KL further study could be done for higher percentage. Clinical significance: According to this novel addition which indicated that lignin as a nanoparticle may have had interaction among the polymer matrix. So, it may anticipate in improving the mechanical properties by increasing the strength of the cold-cured acrylic resin.

PDF Share
  1. Ruyter I, Nilner K, Möller B. Color stability of dental composite resin materials for crown and bridge veneers. Dent Mater 1987;3(5):246–251. DOI: 10.1016/S0109-5641(87)80081-7
  2. Silame FDJ, Tonani R, Alandia-Roman CC, et al. Colour stability of temporary restorations with different thicknesses submitted to artificial accelerated aging. Eur J Prosthodont Restor Dent 2013;21(4):187–190. DOI: 10.1922/ejprd_1297souza04
  3. Rosenstiel SF, Land MF, Fujimoto J. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics. 5th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2015.
  4. Christensen GJ. The fastest and best provisional restorations. J Am Dent Assoc 2003;134(5):637–639. DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.2003.0233
  5. Gough M. A review of temporary crowns and bridges. Dent Update 1994;21(5):203–207. PMID: 7875350.
  6. Gratton DG, Aquilino SA. Interim restorations. Dent Clin North Am 2004;48(5):487–497. DOI: 10.1016/j.cden.2003.12.007
  7. Kohli S, Bhatia S, Sexana K, et al. Discoloration of polymethyl methacrylate versus bis-acrylic based provisional crown and bridge dental resins: effect of storage media and duration. Ann Med Health Sci Res 2017;7(3):195–199.
  8. Anusavice KJ. Phillips. Ciencia de Los materiales dentales. 11th ed. Elsevier; 2004.
  9. Tyliszczak B, Drabczyk A, Kudłacik-Kramarczyk S. Acrylates in dental applications. In: Acrylic Polymers in Healthcare. InTech; 2017.
  10. Jagger DC, Harrison A, Jandt KD. The reinforcement of dentures. J Oral Rehabil 1999;26(3):185–194. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2842.1999.00375
  11. Whitman DJ, McKinney JE, Hinman RW, et al. In vitro wear rates of three types of commercial denture tooth materials. J Prosthet Dent 1987;57(2):243–246. DOI: 10.1590/S1678-77572008000300003
  12. Suzuki S. In vitro wear of nano-composite denture teeth. J Prosthodont 2004;13(4):238–243. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-849X.2004.04043.x
  13. Pan Y, Liu F, Xu D, et al. Novel acrylic resin denture base with enhanced mechanical properties by the incorporation of PMMA-modified hydroxyapatite. Prog Nat Sci Mater Int 2013;23(1):89–93. DOI: 10.1016/j.pnsc.2013.01.016
  14. Balos S, Puskar T, Potran M, et al. Modulus of elasticity, flexural strength and biocompatibility of poly (methyl methacrylate) resins with low addition of nanosilica. Res Rev J Dent Sci 2016;4(1):26–33.
  15. Pan X, Kadla JF, Ehara K, et al. Organosolv ethanol lignin from hybrid poplar as a radical scavenger: relationship between lignin structure, extraction conditions, and antioxidant activity. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54(16):5806–5813. DOI: 10.1021/jf0605392
  16. Kai D, Tan MJ, Chee PL, et al. Towards lignin-based functional materials in a sustainable world. Green Chem 2016;18:1175–1200. DOI: 10.1039/C5GC02616D
  17. Ugartondo V, Mitjans M, Vinardell MP. Comparative antioxidant and cytotoxic effects of lignins from different sources. Bioresour Technol 2008;99(14):6683–6687. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2007.11.038
  18. Ismail IJ. An evaluation of some mechanical properties of autopolymerizing acrylic resin with the modified one after changing the curing environment: in vitro study J Bagh Coll Dent 2015;27(4):62–71. DOI:
  19. Ismail IJ, Hamad TI, Ali BM. Effect of the addition of bio-polymer lignin on the transverse and impact strength of the autopolymerizing acrylic resin. J Faculty Med Baghdad 2010;52(3). b20c94759f8f7946 (
  20. American Dental Association Specification No. 57, 12(1999) for Denture Base Polymers. Chicago: Council on Dental Materials and Devices. ANSI/ADA.
  21. Lievonen M, Valle-Delgado JJ, Mattinen ML, et al. A simple process for lignin nanoparticle preparation. Green Chem 2016;18:1416–1422. DOI:
  22. Richter AP, Bharti B, Armstrong HB, et al. Synthesis and characterization of biodegradable lignin nanoparticles with tunable surface properties. Langmuir 2016;32(3):6468–6477. DOI: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.6b01088
  23. Garcia A, Erdocia X, Gonzalez Alriols M, et al. Physicochemical Properties and Potential Applications of Lignins from Various Sources. In: Lu F, editor. Lignin: Structural Analysis, Applications in Biomaterials and Ecological Significance. 6th ed. New York, NY, USA: NOVA Publisher; 2014. p. 127–160.
  24. Wu S, Shen D, Hu J, et al. Role of β-O-4 glycosidic bond on thermal degradation of cellulose. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 2016;119:147−156. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaap.2016.03.006
  25. Thielemans W, Can E, Morye SS, et al. Novel applications of lignin in composite materials. J Appl Polym Sci 2002;83(2):323–331. DOI: 10.1002/app.2247
  26. Duval A, Lawoko M. A review on lignin-based polymeric, micro- and nano-structured materials. React Funct Polym 2014;85:78–96. DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2014.09.017
  27. Rico-García D, Ruiz-Rubio L, Pérez-Alvarez L, et al. Lignin-based hydrogels: synthesis and applications review. Polymers 2020;12(1):81. DOI: 10.3390/polym12010081
  28. Unal H, Mimaroglu A. Influence of filler addition on the mechanical properties of nylon-6 polymer. J Reinf Plast Compos 2004;23(5): 461–469. DOI: 10.1177/0731684404031977
  29. Korkmaz T, Doğan A, Usanmaz A. Dynamic mechanical analysis of provisional resin materials reinforced by metal oxides. Biomed Mater Eng 2005;15(3):179–188. Available from:
  30. Ismail IJ, Development and performance of composite from modified nano filler with plasma treated fiber and heat cured acrylic denture base material on some of its properties—in vitro study. Int J Sci Res 2017;6(3): 371–377. DOI: 10.21275/ART20171011
  31. Ismail IJ, Diya BM, Ebrahim FJ. Addition of nanohybrids particles and fiber to heat cured PMMA denture base materials. Int J Med Res Health Sci 2018;7(10):20–29.
  32. Vallittu PK, Lassila VP, Niom RL. The effect of notch shape and self-cured acrylic resin repair on the fatigue resistance of an acrylic resin denture base. J Oral Rehabil 1996;23(2):108-113. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2842.1996.tb01218.x
  33. Al-Hiloh SA, Ismail IJ. A study the effect of addition of silanized zirconium oxide nanoparticles on some properties of high-impact heat-cured acrylic resin. J Baghdad Coll Dent 2016;28(2):19-25. DOI: 10.12816/0028208
  34. Ahmed AG, Ismail IJ. Evaluation the effect of addition of plasma treated polypropylene fiber and silanized silicon dioxide nanoparticles composite on some properties of heat-polymerized polymethylmethacrylate. J Baghdad Coll Dent 2016;28(4). DOI: 10.12816/0033203
  35. Karacaer Ö, Polat TN, Tezvergil A, et al. The effect of length and concentration of glass fibers on the mechanical properties of an injection and a compression molded denture base polymer. J Prosthet Dent 2003;90(4):385–393. DOI: 10.1016/S 0022391303005183
  36. Tanasă F, Zănoagă M, Darie R, et al. Evaluation of stress-strain properties of some new-clay nano composites for aerospace and defense applications. Scientific Research and Education in the Air Force. Brasov: AFASES; 2014. pp. 241–249. [cited 19 June 2022]. Available from:
  37. Sun L, Ronald FG, Suhr J, et al. Energy absorption capability of nano composites: a review. Compos Sci Technol 2009;69(14):2392–2409. DOI: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2009.06.020
  38. Anfe TEA, Caneppele TMF, Agra CM, et al. Microhardness assessment of different commercial brands of resin composites with different degrees of translucence. Braz Oral Res 2008;22(4):358–363. DOI: 10.1590/S1806-83242008000400013
  39. Nejatian T, Johnson A, Van Noort R. Reinforcement of denture base resin. Adv Sci Technol 2006;49:124–129. DOI: 10.4028/
  40. Zissis AJ, Polizois GL, Yannikakis SA, et al. Roughness of denture materials: a comparative study. Int J Prosthodont 2000;13(2): 136–140. PMID: 11203622.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.