World Journal of Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 13 , ISSUE 4 ( July-August, 2022 ) > List of Articles


Comparative Evaluation of Herpes Viruses in Chronic Periodontitis with and without Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Clinico-microbial Study

Savita Abdulpur Mallikarjun, Sreedevi Das, Harsha Mysore Babu, Mahesh Ramanna Gowda, Archana Naik, Pallavi Nanaiah

Keywords : Chronic periodontitis, Generalized anxiety disorder, Herpes viruses, Multiplex polymerase chain reaction, Stress

Citation Information : Mallikarjun SA, Das S, Babu HM, Gowda MR, Naik A, Nanaiah P. Comparative Evaluation of Herpes Viruses in Chronic Periodontitis with and without Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Clinico-microbial Study. World J Dent 2022; 13 (4):375-381.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2053

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 18-06-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


Aim: The present study was aimed to detect, compare and correlate the presence of herpes simplex virus (HSV)—1, HSV-2, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in chronic periodontitis patients with and without generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Materials and methods: A total of 45 patients, aged 30–55 years were divided into three groups of 15 study participants each into chronic periodontitis; chronic periodontitis with GAD and those without chronic periodontitis and without GAD groups based on the inclusion criteria. Subgingival plaque samples were collected using curettes from the deepest periodontal pockets and sent in transport media containing tris–ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) and analyzed using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR). Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test and Spearman's correlation analysis. Results: The results of our study showed that there were elevated levels of HSV-1, HSV-2, EBV, and HCMV in the chronic periodontitis with GAD group as compared to the chronic periodontitis group with statistically significant difference observed only between the levels of EBV. The correlation analysis showed positive correlations between the herpes virus and the bleeding and plaque indices scores. On examining the correlation between herpes viruses, positive correlations were noticed between HSV-1 and EBV, HSV-1 and HCMV, and EBV and HCMV. Conclusion: Positive association of herpes viruses in GAD patients in this study suggests a possibility of viral role in the etiology of chronic periodontitis. Clinical significance: Treatment of GAD and chronic periodontitis simultaneously could reduce stress and viral load, thus contributing to down regulation of the progress of the chronic periodontitis.

PDF Share
  1. Albandar JM. Epidemiology and risk factors of periodontal diseases. Dent Clin North Am 2005;49(3):517–532. DOI: 10.1016/j.cden.2005.03.003
  2. Ezzo PJ, Cutler CW. Microorganisms as risk indicators for periodontal disease. Periodontol 2000 2003;32:24–35. DOI: 10.1046/j.0906-6713.2003.03203.x
  3. Slots J. Herpesviruses in periodontal diseases. Periodontol 2000 2005;38:33–62. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0757.2005.00109.x
  4. Saygun I, Yapar M, Ozdemir A, et al. Human cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus type 1 in periodontal abscesses. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2004;19(2):83–87. DOI: 10.1046/j.0902-0055.2002.00118.x
  5. Contreras A, Zadeh HH, Nowzari H, et al. Herpesvirus infection of inflammatory cells in human periodontitis. Oral Microbiol Immunol 1999;14(4):206–212. DOI: 10.1034/j.1399-302x.1999.140402.x
  6. Boyapati L, Hom-Wang L. The role of stress in periodontal disease and wound healing. Periodontol 2000 2007;44:195–210. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0757.2007.00211.x
  7. Genco RJ, Ho AW, Kopman J, et al. Models to evaluate the role of stress in periodontal disease. Ann Periodontol 1998;3(1):288–302. DOI: 10.1902/annals.1998.3.1.288
  8. Green LW, Tryon WW, Marks B, et al. Periodontal disease as a function of life events stress. J Human Stress 1986;12(1):32–36. DOI: 10.1080/0097840x.1986.9936764
  9. Rozlog LA, Keiclot-Glaser JK, Marucha PT, et al. Stress and immunity: implications for viral diseases and wound healing. J Periodontol 1999;70(7):786–792. DOI: 10.1902/jop.1999.70.7.786
  10. Matalka KM, Sidki A, Malik SMA, et al. Academic stress- influence on Epstein–Barr virus and cytomegalovirus reactivation, cortisol and prolactin. Lab Med 2000;31(3):163–168. DOI: 10.1309/U9N6-3D0G-RYE8-K3CM
  11. Sheehan DV, Lecrubier Y, Sheehan KH, et al. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. J Clin Psychiatry 1998;59((Suppl 20)):22–33.
  12. Armitage GC. Development of a classification system for periodontal diseases and conditions. Ann Periodontol 1999;4(1):1–6. DOI: 10.1902/annals.1999.4.1.1
  13. Silness J, Loe H. Periodontal disease in pregnancy. II. Correlation between oral hygiene and periodontal condition. Acta Odontol 1964;22:121–135. DOI: 10.3109/00016356408993968
  14. Loe H, Silness J. Periodontal disease in pregnancy. I. Prevalence and severity. Acta Odontol Scand 1963;21:533–551. DOI: 10.3109/00016356309011240
  15. Nakata A. Psychosocial job stress and immunity: a systematic review. Methods Mol Biol 2012;934:39–75. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-62703-071-7_3
  16. Johannsen A, Rylander G, Soder B, et al. Dental plaque, gingival inflammation, and elevated levels of interleukin-6 and cortisol in gingival crevicular fluid from women with stress-related depression and exhaustion. J Periodontol 2006;77(8):1403–1409. DOI: 10.1902/jop.2006.050411
  17. Rosania AE, Low KG, McCormick CM, et al. Stress, depression, cortisol, and periodontal disease. J Periodontol 2009;80(2):260–266. DOI: 10.1902/jop.2009.080334
  18. Bailey MT, Kinsey SG, Padgett DA, et al. Social stress enhances IL-1beta and TNF-alpha production by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-stimulated CD11b+ cells. Physiol Behav 2009;98(3):351–358. DOI: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2009.06.013
  19. Michalowicz BS, Ronderos M, Camara-Silva R, et al. Human herpesviruses and Porphyromonas gingivalis are associated with early-onset periodontitis. J Periodontol 2000;71(6):981–88. DOI: 10.1902/jop.2000.71.6.981
  20. Kamma JJ, Contreras A, Slots J. Herpes viruses and periodontopathic bacteria in early-onset periodontitis. J Clin Periodontol 2001;28(9): 879–885. DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-051x.2001.028009879.x
  21. Li Y, Zhang JC, Zhang YH. [The association between infection of Epstein-Barr virus and chronic periodontitis]. Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2004;39(2):146–148. Chinese. PMID: 15061892.
  22. Idesawa M, Sugano N, Ikeda K, et al. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus in saliva by real-time PCR. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2004;19(4):230–232. DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-302X.2004.00144.x
  23. Bilichodmath S, Mangalekar SB, Sharma DC, et al. Herpesviruses in chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients in an Indian population. J Oral Sci 2009;51(1):79–86. DOI: 10.2334/josnusd.51.79
  24. Pass RF. Epidemiology and transmission of cytomegalovirus infection. J Infect Dis 1985;152(2):243–248. DOI: 10.1093/infdis/152.2.243
  25. Dowd JB, Aiello AE, Alley DE. Socioeconomic disparities in the sero-prevalence of cytomegalovirus infection in the US population: NHANES III. Epidemiol Infect 2008;16(1):1–8. DOI: 10.1017/S0950268808000551
  26. Glaser R, Kutz LA, MacCallum RC, et al. Hormonal modulation of Epstein-Barr virus replication. Neuroendocrinology 1995;62(4):356–361. DOI: 10.1159/000127025
  27. Glaser R, Kiecolt-Glaser JK. Stress-induced immune dysfunction: implications for health. Nat Rev Immunol 2005;5(3):243–251. DOI: 10.1038/nri1571
  28. Webster Marketon JI, Glaser R. Stress hormones and immune function. Cell Immunol 2008;252(1-2):16–26. DOI: 10.1016/j.cellimm.2007.09.006
  29. Nunn ME. Understanding the etiology of periodontitis: an overview of periodontal risk factors. Periodontol 2000 2003;32:11–23. DOI: 10.1046/j.0906-6713.2002.03202.x
  30. Contreras A, Umeda M, Chen C, et al. Relationship between herpesviruses and adult periodontitis and periodontopathic bacteria. J Periodontol 1999;70(5):478–484. DOI: 10.1902/jop.1999.70.5.478
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.