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VOLUME 12 , ISSUE 6 ( November-December, 2021 ) > List of Articles

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Effect of Low-dose Aspirin on Neutrophil Apoptosis in Periodontitis: An Immunohistochemical Study

Shivanaikar Sachin, Faizuddin Mohamed, Bhat Kishore, Vijaya Kumar, D\'souza Neevan, Aruna Ganganna

Keywords : Apoptosis, Aspirin, Neutrophil, Periodontitis

Citation Information : Sachin S, Mohamed F, Kishore B, Kumar V, Neevan D, Ganganna A. Effect of Low-dose Aspirin on Neutrophil Apoptosis in Periodontitis: An Immunohistochemical Study. World J Dent 2021; 12 (6):441-445.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1879

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 24-11-2021

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2021; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Aim and objective: A growing body of research today suggests that periodontitis is due to the failure of resolution pathways to restore homeostasis. Resolution is an active phenomenon of suppressing inflammation once its main objective of eliminating pathogens is achieved. Neutrophil apoptosis is an important step in promoting resolution. In chronic periodontitis, neutrophils linger for a long time in inflamed connective tissue and cause tissue destruction. Aspirin, a widely used anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombogenic drug, is known to cause neutrophil apoptosis by synthesizing aspirin-triggered lipoxin (15epiLXA4) a potent pro-resolving lipid mediator. This immunohistochemical investigation is designed to study the effect of low-dose aspirin therapy on neutrophil apoptosis in the gingival biopsies of patients suffering from periodontitis. Materials and methods: The study population consisted of 30 periodontitis patients who were divided into two groups of 15 each as test group and control group. Test group patients were on low-dose aspirin (75 mg/150 mg) therapy for clinical management of class 1 and class 2 functional capacity cardiovascular disease. Periodontal parameters like plaque index (PI), bleeding index (BI), probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were recorded, gingival biopsies were obtained from all patients for quantitative analysis of neutrophil apoptosis by immunohistochemistry using p53 as a marker of apoptosis. Chi-square/Fisher\'s exact test was used to find the significance of study parameters on a categorical scale between two groups. Results: Results indicated that there was a decrease in PPD and CAL and a marginal increase in neutrophil apoptosis in the test group in comparison with a control group. Conclusion: Low-dose aspirin therapy may induce neutrophil apoptosis and improve PPD and CAL. Hence, it is presumed that it has the potential to be used as a host-modulating agent in the clinical management of periodontitis. Clinical significance: The low-dose aspirin could be used as a host-modulating agent in the management of periodontitis. Key messages: Increase apoptosis of neutrophils in the gingival biopsies of periodontitis patients who are on long-term low-dose aspirin therapy for CVD indicates that low-dose aspirin could be a potential host modality agent in the treatment of chronic periodontitis.


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