Aim: The aim of the present study was to review the importance of various steps involved in immunohistochemistry (IHC) and highlight the troubleshootings encountered at each phase of the procedure with possible remedies.
Introduction: Immunohistochemistry is often employed to explore tissue/cell antigens that vary from amino acids, proteins, infectious agents, and specific cellular group in health and disease. It is a vital tool for scientific research and also an adjunct technique for the exclusion of differential diagnosis that may be missed by routine stains. Although IHC is well practiced, there are several hurdles that could be encountered during each step of immunohistochemical procedure, i.e., preparation of slide to incubation with antibodies, interpretation and quantification of the desired expression that finally influences the staining of tissue.
Clinical significance: An accurate and proper diagnosis of a pathology is key for the successful treatment by a clinician/ surgeon, as IHC acts as an adjunct in the diagnosis of challenging lesions. Hence, it is absolute necessary for a pathologist to have a thorough knowledge of immunohistochemical procedure and remedies to overcome the hurdles encountered during the procedure to obtain an ideal IHC-stained slide for diagnosis.
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