Aim: The study aims is to investigate the combined effect of the corrosion and the fretting induced by small deflections imposed on the orthodontic stainless steel and nickel-titanium arch-wire in contact with stainless steel bracket in neutral artificial and acidified saliva which simulate the aggressive conditions.
Materials and methods: Electrochemical analysis of orthodontic materials has been firstly conducted in the oral environment and under the combined effect of fretting and corrosion using an experimental test bench designed for this effect. Analysis of contact area between elements has also been conducted using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispensing spectroscopy (EDS).
Results: The results indicate that the pH of an oral environment has an important influence on the corrosion resistance and the effect of fretting-corrosion process affects significantly the corrosion behavior of materials tested in the oral environment.
Conclusion: The combined effect of fretting and corrosion tests conducted in artificial saliva show that nickel titanium wire is more resistant than stainless steel wire in contact with stainless steel brackets after 100000 cycles. Also, the corrosion resistance in acidified saliva is very pronounced for stainless steel wire and bracket as it reported by many authors.
Clinical significance: The degradation of the orthodontics materials in the oral environment can cause major problems for the patient\'s health.
Begum R, Ariga P, Jain AR. Evaluation of Corrosive Behavior of Four Nickel–chromium Alloys in Artificial Saliva by Cyclic Polarization Test: An in vitro Study. World Journal of Dentistry. 2017 Dec;8(6):477-482.
William J. Dental materials and their selection, 4ème édition, 2008;448.
Jordan L, Filleul MP, Portier R, Orthodontic arch wires with shape memory: structures and properties. Dento-Facial Ortho-pedic Journal. 1997 Jun; 31:199-211
Carels C, Chatzicharalampous E, Verbeke G, Celis JP, Clocheret K, Willems G. Frictional behavior of stainless steel bracket-wire combinations subjected to small oscillating displacements. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2001 Oct;120(4):371-377.
Heravi F, Moayed MH, Mokhber N. Effect of Fluoride on Nickel-Titanium and Stainless Steel Orthodontic Archwires: An In-Vitro Study. J Dent (Tehran). 2015 Jan;12(1):49-59.
Geringer J, Forest B, Combrade P. Fretting-corrosion of materials used as orthopaedic implants. Wear [Internet]. Elsevier BV; 2005 Jul;259(7-12):943-951
Kanter D. Contribution to the study of 35° Copper Ni-Ti wires by differential scanning calorimetry: clinical incidence. Thesis, University of Lorraine, Nancy, 2012
Georges D. General pathology and saliva. Thesis, Henri Poincaré University, Nancy, 2012.
Cuinet M, Guivarch J, Huet AP. The orthodontic wires at the rate of the third millennium, Journal l'Orthodontie Française, 2001;72(3):221-291.
Dawes C. Circadian rhythms in human salivary flow rate and composition. Journal of physiology, 1972 Feb; 220(3):529-545.
Helfer M. Study of prosthetic reconstruction materials odontology in artificial saliva. Thesis, University of Lorraine, 2012.
Pellier J. Role of ionic strength, albumin and pH on the fretting-corrosion degradation of a contact Stainless Steel/ PMMA. Application to orthopedic implants. Thesis, Ecole Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, Saint-Etienne, 2012.
Rapiejkoa C, Fouvrya S, Grosgogeatb B, Wendlerc B. A representative ex-situ fretting wear investigation of orthodontic arch-wire/bracket contacts. An International Journal on the Science and Technology of Friction, Lubrication and Wear 2009 March; 266(2-3):850-858.
Discount CH. Segmented arc technique: dental biomechanics. Thesis, University of Montreal, 2007.
ROCHAIX C. Electrochemistry: Thermodynamics-kinetics, 1st edition, 1996 Nov: 239-241.
Gravina M, Canavorro C, Carlos Nelson E, Chaves M, Brunharo I, Quintão C. Mechanical properties of Ni-Ti and Cu Ni-Ti wires used in orthodontic treatment. Part 2: Microscopic surface appraisal and metallurgical characteristics. Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics, 2014 Jan-Feb;19(1):69-76.
Bertrand G. Influence of sterilization on the torsional mechanical properties of two types of orthodontic arches wires based on Nickel Titanium Copper. Thesis, University of Lorraine, Nancy, 2014.
Yves B. Influence of temperature variations encountered in the oral cavity on the physical properties of Nickel-Titanium orthodontic wires. Thesis, Henri Poincaré University Nancy I, Nancy, 2008.
Bahije L, Benyahia H, El Hamzaoui S, Ebn Touhami M, Benguedour R, Rerhhaye W. Comportement du NiTi en présence des bactéries orales: corrosion par le Streptococcus mutans. International orthodontics. 2011 Mar 1;9(1):110-119.
Upadhyay D, Panchal MA, Dubey RS, Srivastava VK. Corrosion of alloys used in dentistry: A review. Materials Science and Engineering, 2006 Sep; 432:1-11.
Platt JA, Guzman A, Zuccari A, Thornburg DW, Rhodes BF, Oshida Y, et al. Corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stain-less steel. Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 1997 Jul;112(1):69-79.
Pacquentin W. Contribution to the study of physicochemical properties of surfaces modified by laser treatment. Application to the improvement of localized corrosion resistance of Stainless Steel. Thesis, University of Burgundy, Dijon, 2011.
Zahia AYM. Characterization of stainless steel X5crNi18-10 and study of its oxidation at temperature. Thesis, Mouloud Mammeri University, Tizi-Ouzou, 2013.
Chimla TF. Electrochemical Properties of Metal Alloys Used in Dentistry, Medical-Surgical Encyclopedia, 1998;10:7-8.
Lenander M, Loimaranta V. Saliva and dental caries. Journal Advances in Dental Research, 2000 Dec;14:40-47.
Schipper RG, Silletti E, Vingerhoeds M. Saliva as research material: biochemical, physicochemical and practical aspects, Achives of Oral Biology, 2007 Dec;52(12):14-35.
Leung VW, Darvell BW. Artificiel salivas for in vitro studies of dental materials Journal of Dentistry 1997 Nov;25(6): 475-484.
Rerhrhaye W, Bahije L, El Mabrouk K, Zaoui F, Marzouk N. Degradation of the mechani-cal properties of orthodontic Ni-Ti alloys in the oral environment: an in vitro study. International Orthodontics, 2014 Aug; 12(3):271-280.
Schiff N, Grosggeat B, Lissac M, Dalard F. Influence of uoride content and pH on the corrosion resistance of titanium and its alloys. Biomaterials. 2002 May;23(3):1995-2002.
Al subari RAS. Study of the influence of khat and mouthwashes on the surface condition of denture alloys. Thesis, Mohamed V Souissi University, Rabat, 2014.
Eliades T, Athanasiou AE. In vivo aging of orthodontic alloys: implications for corrosion potential, nickel release, and biocompatibility. Journal of Orthodantics and Dento-Facial Orthopedics, 2002;72(3):222-237.
Ompain P. Behavior of dental prosthetic materials in saline solution, thesis, University Henri Poincaré, Nancy, 2010.
Geringer J. Fretting corrosion of materials used as orthopedic implants. Thesis Jean Monnet University of Saint-Etienne, Saint-Etienne, 2005.
Sujeet K, ShamSher S, Rani P, Sameer A, Bhatnagar A, Sidhu M, Shetty P. Evaluation of Friction in Orthodontics Using Various Brackets and Archwire Combinations-An in Vitro Study. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 2014 May;8(5):3-36.