World Journal of Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 9 , ISSUE 5 ( September-October, 2018 ) > List of Articles


Prevalence of Gum Infection and Halitosis Among the People of Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Badr Othman

Keywords : Gum infection, Halitosis, Periodontitis, Smokers

Citation Information : Othman B. Prevalence of Gum Infection and Halitosis Among the People of Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. World J Dent 2018; 9 (5):377-381.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1566

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-10-2018

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2018; The Author(s).


Aim: This study was conducted to describe traumatic psychosocial impacts due to gingivitis and halitosis people faces and its relation to visiting dental clinics for aids from Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted in a random sample of 240 people. Among them, 9 participants were excluded because of the lack of information and total 231 participants (134 males and 97 females) included in the study. The data was collected using a pretested structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was distributed electronically among the people living all over the Madinah, Kindom of Saudi Arabia. Results: Mean age of the participant was 34.5. A maximum number of participants (70.6%) told the reason of bad odor was poor oral hygiene and could be get rid by home care (70.1%). Teeth pain (84.4%) was the main cause to visit the dentist. Males were more ashamed of bad odor compared to female, and there was a significant relationship between gender and social impact p = 0.001. Participants having gum infection were more ashamed in the society compared to the participants not having any gum infection (p = 0.001). Smokers were also more ashamed as compared to nonsmokers (p = 0.045). Conclusion: The patients who had gum diseases and smoking developed more psychosocial effect in the society, and it is due to halitosis develop either due to gum disease or smoking. So the main reason of psychosocial trauma is that indirect effect of halitosis, which produced due to gum infection. Clinical impact: People suffering from gingivitis and halitosis go to psychological trauma and they need a clinical solution to overcome from these.

PDF Share
  1. Sundararajan S, Muthukumar S, Rao SR. Relationship between depression and chronic periodontitis. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2015;19(3):294-296.
  2. Peruzzo DC, Benatti BB, Ambrosano GMB, Nogueira-Filho GR, Sallum EA et al. A systemic review of stress and psychological factors as possible risk factors for periodontal disease. J Periodontol 2007;78:1491-1504.
  3. Cayci E, Guzeldemir-Akcakanat E. The relationship between Psychosocial factors and periodontal disease. Dentistry 4:223.
  4. Pérez-Chaparro PJ, Gonçalves C, Figueiredo LC, Faveri M, Lobão E, Tamashiro N, et al. Newly identified pathogens associated with periodontitis: A systematic review. J Dent Res 2014;93(9):846-858.
  5. Bosy A. Oral malodor: Philosophical and practical aspects. J Can Dent Assoc 1997;63(3):196-201.
  6. Loesche WJ, Kazor C. Microbiology and treatment of halitosis. Periodontology 2000; 2002;28:256-279.
  7. Yaegaki K, Coil JM. Examination, classification and treatment of halitosis, clinical perspectives. J Can Dent Assoc 2000;66:257-261.
  8. Arora L, Sharma A. A study to find out the Dental and Associated Psychosocial Factors in Patients with Halitosis. Delhi Psychiatry Journal 2012;15(1):122-129.
  9. Khaira N, Palmer RM, Wilson RF, Scott DA, Wade WG. Production of volatile sulphur compounds in diseased periodontal pockets is significantly increased in smokers. Oral Dis 2000;6:371-375.
  10. Halitosis defined by Wikipedia Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed 19 November 2011.
  11. De Sousa A Psychological issues in acquired facial trauma. Indian J Plast Surg 2010;43(2):200-205.
  12. Beertsen W, Mcculloch Christopher AG, Sodek J. Theperiodontal ligament: a unique, multifunctional connectivetissue. Periodontology 2000. 1997;13:20-40
  13. Sanz M, Roldan S, Herrera D. Fundamentals of breath malodor. J Contemp Dent Pract 2001;2(4):1-17.
  14. Bosy A. Oral malodor: philosophical and practical aspect. J Can Dent Assoc 1997;63(3):196-201.
  15. Loesche WJ, Kazor C. Microbiology, and treatment of halitosis. Periodontology 2000. 2002;28:256-279.
  16. Bornstein MM, Kislig K, Hoti BB, Seemann RL. A prevalence of halitosis in the population of the city of Bern, Switzerland: A study comparing self-reported and clinical data. Eur J Oral Sci 2009;117:261-267.
  17. Bornstein MM, Stocker BL, Seemann R, Burgin WB, Lussi A. Prevalence of halitosis in young male adults: A study in Swiss Army Recruits comparing self-reported and clinical data. J Periodontol 2009;80(1):24-31.
  18. Needleman I, McGrath C, Floyd P, Biddle P, Biddle A. Impact of oral health on the life quality of periodontal patients. J Cin Periodontol 2004;31:454-457.
  19. The Ministry of Health, Brazil National Oral Health Survey 2010; main results. 1-92.
  20. Omili M, Ofili AN, Omuemu V, Oral health perception among officers and men of the Nigerian prisons service. Eur J Gen Dent 2013;2:252-256.
  21. Ng SK, Leung WK. Oral health-related quality of life and periodontal status. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2006; 34:114-122.
  22. Jowett AK, Orr MTS, Rawlinson A, Robinson PG. Psychosocial impact of periodontal disease and its treatment with 24-h root surface debridement. J Clin Periodontol 2009;36:413-418.
  23. Abrahamsson KH, Wennstrom JL, Hallberg U. Patient's view on periodontal disease: attitudes to oral health and expectancy of periodontal treatment: a qualitative interview study. Oral Health Prev Dent 2007;6:209-216.
  24. Sangkheaw S. Effect of smoking on periodontal tissues and halitosis. J Dent Assoc Thai 2007;57:275-283.
  25. Tonzetich J. Oral malodor: an indicator of health status and oral cleanliness. Int Dent J 1978;28:309-319.
  26. Rizzo AA. The possible role of hydrogen sulfide in human periodontal disease I. Hydrogen sulfide production in periodontal pockets. Periodontics 1967;5:233-236.
  27. Rosenberg M. bad breath and periodontal disease: how related are they? J Clin Periodontol 2006;33:29-30.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.