World Journal of Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 9 , ISSUE 5 ( September-October, 2018 ) > List of Articles

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Curing Effectiveness of Bulk-fill Composites

Ali AR Al-Shekhli, Isra'a Al-Aubi

Keywords : Bulk-fill composite, Conventional composite, Micro-hardness, Surface hardness

Citation Information : Al-Shekhli AA, Al-Aubi I. Curing Effectiveness of Bulk-fill Composites. World J Dent 2018; 9 (5):361-365.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1563

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-10-2018

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2018; The Author(s).


Abstract

Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of composite cure of many newly introduced bulk-fill composites Materials and methods: Five types of dental composite materials of A2 shade were selected for this study. Three packable bulk-fill composites: Tetric N Ceram (Ivoclar Vivadent), Filtek bulk-fill posterior composite (3M ESPE) and X-trafill bulk-fill packable composite (VOCO) and two conventional composites: Quadrant Universal L.C Composites (CAVEX) and Composan Bio-esthetic Nano-ceram Composite (PROMEDICA). Ten specimens were prepared from each type of composite material, each composite specimen was prepared by compressing sufficient amount of composite into a mold (6 mm in diameter and 4 mm in thickness) for bulk-fill composites and (6 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness) for conventional composites. The total fifty composite specimens (n = 50) were cured for 20 seconds from the top surface only with Woodpecker LED light curing unit by making the curing tip in intimate contact with the acetate celluloid strips covering the composite surface. After that, the composite specimens were incubated in distilled water at 37° C for 24 hours. Then the 50 composite specimens were tested with Vickers microhardness tester (Microhardness tester FM-800, FUTURE-TEC H, Japan) at 300 g load and 15 seconds according to ISO 4049 for both top and bottom surfaces by making three indentations of both surfaces and considering the mean microhardness value for each surface. The hardness ratio of each specimen was calculated by using the formula (HR {Mean Vicker's hardness of the bottom/Mean Vicker's hardness of the top} x 100). Data were statistically analyzed using mean, standard deviation, one way Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and T-test at 5% level of significance. Results: Statistical analysis of the data revealed, there was a significant difference between the five groups being tested (ANOVA, p ≤0.05). The material with the highest hardness ratio was Cavex followed by X-trafill, Composan, Filtek bulk-fill packable and Tetric N ceram which did not achieve adequate curing (80% hardness ratio). Conclusion: Composite formulation in general significantly affects the effectiveness of composite cure. Clinical significance: Inadequate curing of composite might be considered one of the main causes behind composite restoration failure by negatively affecting its physical and mechanical properties including solubility, bonding qualities and more residual monomers production that are considered highly toxic to pulpal tissue. All these problems can be avoided clinically by former assessment the effectiveness of curing related to that specific composite material being selected.


PDF Share
  1. Ferracane JL. Current trends in dental composites. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine 1995;6(4):302-18.
  2. Asmussen E. Restorative resins. Hardness and strength vs quantity of remaining double bonds. Scand J Dent Res 1982; 90(6):484-489.
  3. Blankenau RJ, Kelsey WP, Powell GL, Shearer GO, Barkmeier WW, Cavel WT. Degree of composite resin polymerization with visible light and argon laser. Am J Dent 1991; 4(1): 40-42.
  4. Cobb DS, MacGregor KM, VARGAS MA, Denehy GE. The physical properties of packable and conventional posterior resin-based composites: a comparison. J Am Dent Assoc 2000; 131(11):1610-1615.
  5. Manhart J, Chen HY, Hickel R. The suitability of packable resin-based composites for posterior restorations. J Am Dent Assoc 2001;132(5):639-645.
  6. Finan L, Palin WM, Moskwa N, McGinley EL, Fleming GJ. The influence of irradiation potential on the degree of conversion and mechanical properties of two bulk-fill flowable RBC base materials. Dent Mater 2013;29(8):906-912.
  7. Ferracane JL, Pfeifer CS, Hilton TJ. Microstructural Features of Current Resin Composite Materials. Current Oral Health Reports 2014;1(4):205-212.
  8. Alrahlah A, Silikas N, Watts D. Post-cure depth of cure of bulk fill dental resin-composites. Dent Mater 2014;30(2):149-54.
  9. Christensen G. Advantages and challenges of bulk-fill resins. Clinician's Report 2012;5(1):1-2.
  10. Rueggeberg FA, Craig R. Correlation of parameters used to estimate monomer conversion in a light-cured composite. J Dent Res 1988;67(6):932-937.
  11. Asmussen E. Factors affecting the quantity of remaining double bonds in restorative resin polymers. Scand J Dent Res 1982;90(6):490-496.
  12. Watts DC, Amer O, Combe EC. Characterization of visible-lightactivated composite systems. Br Dent J 1984;156(6):209-15.
  13. ADA. American Dental Association. Resin Based Composite. J Am Dent Assoc 2003;4:510-513.
  14. Yaman BC, Efes BG, Dorter C, Gomec Y, Erdilek D, Buyukgokcesu S. The effects of halogen and light-emitting diode light curing on the depth of cure and surface microhardness of composite resins. JCD 2011;14(2):136-139.
  15. Hubbezoglu I, Bolayir G, Dogan OM, Dogan A, Özer A, Bek B. Microhardness evaluation of resin composites polymerized by three different light sources”, Dent mater 2007;26(6):845-853.
  16. Bucutas S, Ilie N. Light transmittance and micro-mechanical properties of bulk fill vs. conventional resin based composites”, Clinical oral investigations 2014;18(8):1991-2000.
  17. Hahnel S, Dowling AH, El-Safty S, Fleming GJP. The influence of monomeric resin and filler characteristics on the performance of experimental resin-based composites (RBCs) derived from a commercial formulation. Dent Mater 2012; 28: 416-423
  18. Jackson RD. New posterior composite materials improving placement efficiency. Compendium of continuing education in dentistry 2012;33(4):292-293.
  19. Fortin D, Vargas MA. The spectrum of composites: new techniques and materials. J Am Dent Assoc 2000;131:26S-30S.
  20. Moszner N. State of the art Photopolymerization in dentistry. Research and Developmental Ivoclar Vivadent 2013;19:4-10.
  21. Al-mansour K, Al-sada A, Al-sinan H. Curing depth of bulkfill composites- an in- vitro study. PODJ 2015;35:271-274.
  22. Garcia D, Yaman P, Dennison J, Neiva GF. Polymerization Shrinkage and Depth of Cure of Bulk Fill Flowable Composite Resins. Oper Dent 2014;39(4):441-448.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.