World Journal of Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 9 , ISSUE 3 ( May-June, 2018 ) > List of Articles

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Indications and Methods of removing Dental Implants

Dóra Iványi, Péter Kivovics

Keywords : Endosseous dental implantation, Implant removal, Implants, Peri-implantitis, Research, Retrospective study

Citation Information : Iványi D, Kivovics P. Indications and Methods of removing Dental Implants. World J Dent 2018; 9 (3):180-186.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1530

License: CC BY-SA 4.0

Published Online: 01-06-2018

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2018; The Author(s).


Abstract

Aim: The aim of this research is to make a comparative interpretation of implant removals in the last 3½ years in the Department of Community Dentistry. Materials and methods: In the last 3½ years, 27 patients’ 46 implants were removed in the Department of Community Dentistry. The applied data were obtained by X-rays, medical charts, and patient management program, called FOGÁSZ, found in the Department of Community Dentistry. Data were evaluated with Microsoft Excel software. Results: The average age was 63.7 years; 96.3% of the patients were aged 50 or over; 63.9% of the concerned individuals’ inserted implants were removed. Among maxilla and mandible, there are equal proportions of removed implant\'s location partition; 22.7% of the patients lost their implants within 6 months from surgery. The removed implants were possessed 5.5 years long on average; 40.7% of the patients commanded fixed prosthesis-supported implant and teeth, and this was the most common prosthesis type. The prevalence of peri-implantitis around removed implants was 71.7%. Out of the partly edentulous patients, horizontal bone resorption was discernible in 47.6%; 15.2% of the removals were recommended because of inflammation before osseointegration. Conclusion: Fixed prostheses anchored at the same time to tooth and implant may cause implant loss, because biomechanical aspects of anchoring behave differently in the bone. Lack of peri-implantitis is a key factor in the success of implants. Periodontitis could also promote the development of peri-implantitis. Clinical significance: Avoid planning prostheses anchored at the same time to tooth and implant. Sufficient oral hygiene is essential for the prevention of inflammation. Patients with periodontitis should be cured of inflammation before implantation. Important factor for osseointegration is the inflammation-free healing.


PDF Share
  1. Romeo E, Lops D, Margutti E, Ghisolfi M, Chiapasco M, Vogel G. Long-term survival and success of oral implants in the treatment of full and partial arches: a 7-year prospective study with the ITI dental implant system. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2004 Mar-Apr;19(2):247-259.
  2. Compton SM, Clark D, Chan S, Kuc I, Wubie BA, Levin L. Dental implants in the elderly population: a long-term followup. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2017 Jan-Feb;32(1):164-170.
  3. Divinyi, T. Orális implantológia. Budapest: Semmelweis Kiadó; 2007.
  4. Grisar K, Sinha D, Schoenaers J, Dormaar T, Politis C. Retrospective analysis of dental implants placed between 2012 and 2014: indications, risk factors, and early survival. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2017 May-Jun;32(3):649-654.
  5. Bragger, U.; Heitz-Mayfield, LJ. ITI Treatment Guide: biological and hardware complications in implant dentistry. Vol. 8. Berlin: Quintessenz Verlags; 2015.
  6. Machtei EE. What do we do after an implant fails? A review of treatment alternatives for failed implants. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2013 Jul-Aug;33(4):e111-e119.
  7. Ivanyi, D.; Kivovics, P. A fogaszati implantatumok eltavolitasanak lehetseges okai es modszerei. In: Magyar Fogorvos. Budapest: Semmelweis University; 2017. pp. 86-89.
  8. Alhassani AA, AlGhamdi AS. Inferior alveolar nerve injury in implant dentistry: diagnosis, causes, prevention, and management. J Oral Implantol 2010 Jun;36(5):401-407.
  9. Auyong TG, Le A. Dentoalveolar nerve injury. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am 2011 Aug;23(3):395-400.
  10. Yoon WJ, Kim SG, Jeong MA, Oh JS, You JS. Prognosis and evaluation of tooth damage caused by implant fixtures. J Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg 2013 Jun;39(3):144-147.
  11. Kahraman S, Bal BT, Asar NV, Turkyilmaz I, Tozum TF. Clinical study on the insertion torque and wireless resonance frequency analysis in the assessment of torque capacity and stability of self-tapping dental implants. J Oral Rehabil 2009 Oct;36(10):755-761.
  12. Javed F, Ahmed HB, Crespi R, Romanos GE. Role of primary stability for successful osseointegration of dental implants: factors of influence and evaluation. Interv Med Appl Sci 2013 Dec;5(4):162-167.
  13. Worthington P, Bolender CL, Taylor TD. The Swedish system of osseointegrated implants: problems and complications encountered during a 4-year trial period. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1987 Summer;2(2):77-84.
  14. Mombelli A, van Oosten MA, Schurch E Jr, Land NP. The microbiota associated with successful or failing osseointegrated titanium implants. Oral Microbiol Immunol 1987 Dec;2(4):145-151.
  15. Klinge B, Meyle J; Working Group 2. Peri-implant tissue destruction. The Third EAO Consensus Conference 2012. Clin Oral Implants Res 2012 Oct;23(Suppl 6):108-110.
  16. Heitz-Mayfield L. Peri-implant diseases: diagnosis and risk indicators. J Clin Periodontol 2008 Sep;35(8 Suppl):292-304.
  17. Heitz-Mayfield LJ, Needleman I, Salvi GE, Pjetursson BE. Consensus statements and clinical recommendations for prevention and management of biologic and technical implant complications. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2014;29(Suppl):346-350.
  18. Schwarz MS. Mechanical complications of dental implants. Clin Oral Implants Res 2000;11(Suppl 1):156-158.
  19. Amin RA. Dr. Ramsey Amin's Page. 2010. Available from: http://www.burbankdentalimplants.com.
  20. Yerit KC, Posch M, Seemann M, Hainich S, Dortbudak O, Turhani D, Ozyuvaci H, Watzinger F, Ewers R. Implant survival in mandibles of irradiated oral cancer patients. Clin Oral Implants Res 2006 Jun;17(3):337-344.
  21. Harrison JS, Stratemann S, Redding SW. Dental implants for patients who have had radiation treatment for head and neck cancer. Spec Care Dent 2003 Nov-Dec;23(6):223-229.
  22. Albrektsson T, Chrcanovic B, Ostman PO, Sennerby L. Initial and long-term crestal bone responses to modern dental implants. Periodontology 2000 2017 Feb;73(1):41-50.
  23. Jimbo R, Albrektsson T. Long-term clinical success of minimally and moderately rough oral implants: a review of 71studies with 5 years or more of follow-up. Implant Dent 2015 Feb;24(1):62-69.
  24. Straumannc Implants. Guidance for implant removal. 2012.
  25. Skalak R. Biomedical considerations in osseointegrated prostheses. J Prosthet Dent 1983 Jun;49(6):843-848.
  26. Staj.i. Z, Stoj.ev Staj.i. LJ, Kalanovi. M, .ini. A, Divekar N, Rodi. M. Removal of dental implants: review of five different techniques. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2016 May;45(5):641-648.
  27. Yaman Z, Suer BT. Piezoelectric surgery in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Ann Oral Maxillofac Surg 2013 Feb;1(1):5.
  28. Beaudoin, M. Oral health. 2012. Available from: http://www. oralhealthgroup.com/features/removing-implants-with-atwist/.
  29. Gyorgy J, Laszlo B, Gabor W. A diabetes mellitus korismezese, a cukorbetegek kezelese es gondozasa a feln.ttkorban. A magyar diabetes tarsasag szakmai iranyelve. Diabetologia Hungarica 2014;14(Suppl):1-48.
  30. Gyorgy S. Kardiovaszkularis betegsegek morbiditasi viszonyai Magyarorszagon. 2002.
  31. Anna T. A daganatos betegsegek el.fordulasa, a hazai es a nemzetkozi helyzet ismertetese. Magyar Tudomany 2011; 11:1333-1345.
  32. Madlena M, Hermann P, Jahn M, Fejerdy P. Caries prevalence and tooth loss in Hungarian adult population: results of a national survey. BMC Public Health 2008 Oct;8:364.
  33. Tibor F, Pal F, Endre S. Magyarorszag feln.tt lakossaga fogazatanak ertekelese a fogpotlas szempontjabol. Fogorvosi Szemle 1998;91(12):383-389.
  34. Cakur B, Y.ld.z M, Dane., Zorba YO. The effect of right or left handedness on caries experience and oral hygiene. J Neurosci Rural Pract 2011 Jan-Jun;2(1):40-42.
  35. Chanavaz M. Anatomy and histophysiology of the periosteum: quantification of the periosteal blood supply to the adjacent bone with 85Sr and gamma spectrometry. J Oral Implantol 1995;21(3):214-219.
  36. Tolstunov L. Implant zones of the jaws: implant location and related success rate. J Oral Implantol 2007;33(4):211-220.
  37. Winter W, Klein D, Karl M. Micromotion of dental implants: basic mechanical considerations. J Med Eng 2013 Sep;2013:265412.
  38. Charalampakis G, Leonhardt A, Rabe P, Dahlen G. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of peri-implantitis cases: a retrospective multicentre study. Clin Oral Implants Res 2012 Sep;23(9):1045-1054.
  39. Ericsson I, Persson LG, Berglundh T, Marinello CP, Lindhe J, Klinge B. Different types of inflammatory reactions in peri-implant soft tissues. J Clin Periodontol 1995 Apr;22(3): 255-261.
  40. Zitzmann N, Walter C, Berglundh T. Atiologie, diagnostik und therapie der periimplantitis.eine ubersicht. Deutsche Zahnarztliche Zeitschrift 2006 Jan;61:642-649.
  41. Rams TE, Degener JE, van Winkelhoff AJ. Antibiotic resistance in human peri-implantitis microbiota. Clin Oral Implants Res 2013 Jan;25(1):82-90.
  42. Salonen MA, Oikarinen K, Virtanen K, Pernu H. Failures in the osseointegration of endosseous implants. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1993;8(1):92-97.
  43. Zhang X, Sun Z, Yang Q. Application of Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to the analysis of bacterial communities associated with asymptomatic and symptomatic pericoronitis. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2018 Mar;76(3):483-489.
  44. Suárez-López Del Amo F, Yu SH, Wang HL. Non-surgical therapy for peri-implant diseases: a systematic review. J Oral Maxillofac Res 2016 Sep;7(3):e13.
  45. Aberg CH, Kelk P, Johansson A. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: virulence of its leukotoxin and association with aggressive periodontitis. Virulence 2015 Apr;6(3):188-195.
  46. Larsen OI, Enersen M, Kristoffersen AK, Wennerberg A, Bunæs DF, Lie SA, Leknes KN. Antimicrobial effects of three different treatment modalities on dental implant surfaces. J Oral Implantol 2017 Dec;43(6):429-436.
  47. Prathapachandran J, Suresh N. Management of periimplantitis. Dent Res J (Isfahan) 2012 Sep-Oct;9(5):516-521.
  48. Bhattacharyya M, Kumar AN, Kapuria S. Synthesis and characterization of Al/SiC and Ni/Al2O3 functionally graded materials. Mater Sci Eng A 2008 Jul;487(1-2):524-535.
  49. Chenglin C, Jingchuan Z, Zhongda Y, Shidong W. Hydroxyapatite-Ti functionally graded biomaterial fabricated by powder metallurgy. Mater Sci Eng A 1999 Nov;271(1):95-100.
  50. Oleiwi JK, Anaee RA, Muhsin SA. Fabrication, characterization and physical properties of functionally graded Ti/HAP bioimplants. Wulfenia J 2015 Jul;22(7):336-348.
  51. Ogawa T, Watanabe Y, Sato H, Kim IS, Fukui Y. Theoretical study on fabrication of functionally graded material with density gradient by a centrifugal solid-particle method. Compos Part A Appl S 2006 Dec;37(12):2194-2200.
  52. Yang ZM, Tian F, Zhang LM. Theoretical study on two sedimentation processes used to form functionally graded materials. J Mater Sci Lett 2003 May;22(10):739-741.
  53. Yang ZM, Gong DR, Zhang LM. Design of co-sedimentation experiments used to fabricate functionally graded materials with a continuous change of composition. J Wuhan Univ Technol Mater Sci Ed 2004 Jan;19(2):11-13.
  54. Jin G, Takeuchi M, Honda S, Nishikawa T, Awaji H. Properties of multilayered mullite/Mo functionally graded materials fabricated by powder metallurgy processing. Mater Chem Physics 2005 Feb;89(2):238-243.
  55. Jamaludin SN, Basri S, Hussain A, Al-Othmany DS, Mustapha F, Nuruzzaman DM. Three-dimensional finite element modeling of thermomechanical problems in functionally graded hydroxyapatite/titanium plate. Math Probl Eng 2014 Apr;2014:371462.
  56. Halpern LR, Dodson TB. Does prophylactic administration of systemic antibiotics prevent postoperative inflammatory complications after third molar surgery? J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2007 Feb;65(2):177-185.
  57. Lopez-Cedrun JL, Pijoan JI, Fernandez S, Santamaria J, Hernandez G. Efficacy of amoxycillin treatment in preventing postoperative complications in patients undergoing third molar surgery: a prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled study. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2011 Jun;69(6):e5-e14.
  58. Arteagoitia MI, Barbier L, Santamaria J, Santamaria G, Ramos E. Efficacy of amoxicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in the prevention of infection and dry socket after third molar extraction. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2016 Jul;21(4):e494-e504.
  59. Piltz JR, Starita RJ. The use of subconjunctivally administered tissue plasminogen activator after trabeculectomy. Ophthalmic Surg 1994 Jan;25(1):51-53.
  60. Por YM, Tan YL, Mehta JS, Tan DT. Intracameral fibrin tissue sealant as an adjunct in tectonic lamellar keratoplasty for large corneal perforations. Cornea 2009 May;28(4):451-455.
  61. Sakarya Y, Sakarya R, Yildirim A. Sutureless amniotic membrane fixation with fibrin glue in symptomatic bullous keratopathy with poor visual potential. Eur J Ophthalmol 2010 Jan-Feb;20(1):249; author reply 249-250.
  62. Lee GA, Holcombe DJ. Surgical revision of dysfunctional filtration blebs with bleb preservation sliding conjunctival flap and fibrin glue. Eye (Lond) 2010 Jun;24(6):947-953.
  63. Kahook MY, Noecker RJ. Fibrin glue-assisted glaucoma drainage device surgery. Br J Ophthalmol 2006 Dec;90(12):1486-1489.
  64. Valimaki J. Fibrin glue for preventing immediate postoperative hypotony following glaucoma drainage implant surgery. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 2006 Jun;84(3):372-374.
  65. Malhotra C, Jain AK. Human amniotic membrane transplantation: different modalities of its use in ophthalmology. World J Transplant 2014 Jun;4(2):111-121.
  66. Dua HS, Gomes JA, King AJ, Maharajan VS. The amniotic membrane in ophthalmology. Surv Ophthalmol 2004 Jan-Feb;49(1):51-77.
  67. Shimmura S, Shimazaki J, Ohashi Y, Tsubota K. Antiinflammatory effects of amniotic membrane transplantation in ocular surface disorders. Cornea 2001 May;20(4):408-413.
  68. Yazdani S, Mahboobipour H, Pakravan M, Doozandeh A, Ghahari E. Adjunctive mitomycin c or amniotic membrane transplantation for Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation: a randomized clinical trial. J Glaucoma 2016 May;25(5):415-421.
  69. Sheha H, Kheirkhah A, Taha H. Amniotic membrane transplantation in trabeculectomy with mitomycin C for refractory glaucoma. J Glaucoma 2008 Jun-Jul;17(4):303-307.
  70. Khairy HA, Elsawy MF. Trabeculectomy with mitomycin-C versus trabeculectomy with amniotic membrane transplant: a medium-term randomized controlled trial. J Glaucoma 2015 Sep;24(7):556-559.
  71. Rauscher FM, Barton K, Budenz DL, Feuer WJ, Tseng SC. Long-term outcomes of amniotic membrane transplantation for repair of leaking glaucoma filtering blebs. Am J Ophthalmol 2007 Jun;143(6):1052-1054.
  72. Sethi P, Patel RN, Goldhardt R, Ayyala RS. Conjunctival advancement with subconjunctival amniotic membrane draping technique for leaking cystic blebs. J Glaucoma 2016 Feb;25(2):188-192.
  73. Kitagawa K, Yanagisawa S, Watanabe K, Yunoki T, Hayashi A, Okabe M, Nikaido T. A hyperdry amniotic membrane patch using a tissue adhesive for corneal perforations and bleb leaks. Am J Ophthalmol 2009 Sep;148(3):383-389.
  74. Nagai-Kusuhara A, Nakamura M, Fujioka M, Negi A. Longterm results of amniotic membrane transplantation-assisted bleb revision for leaking blebs. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2008 Apr;246(4):567-571.
  75. Rai P, Lauande-Pimentel R, Barton K. Amniotic membrane as an adjunct to donor sclera in the repair of exposed glaucoma drainage devices. Am J Ophthalmol 2005 Dec;140(6): 1148-1152.
  76. Ainsworth G, Rotchford A, Dua HS, King AJ. A novel use of amniotic membrane in the management of tube exposure following glaucoma tube shunt surgery. Br J Ophthalmol 2006 Apr;90(4):417-419.
  77. Papadaki TG, Siganos CS, Zacharopoulos IP, Panteleontidis V, Charissis SK. Human amniotic membrane transplantation for tube exposure after glaucoma drainage device implantation. J Glaucoma 2007 Jan;16(1):171-172.
  78. Mulder EJ, Leiblum DM, Visser GH. Fetal breathing movements in late diabetic pregnancy: relationship to fetal heart rate patterns and Braxton Hicks’ contractions. Early Hum Dev 1995 Nov;43(3):225-232.
  79. Schulte FJ, Michaelis R, Nolte R, Albert G, Parl U, Lasson U. Brain and behavioral maturation in newborn infants of diabetic mothers. I. Nerve conduction and EEG patterns. Neuropadiatrie 1969 Jan-Jul;1(1):24-35.
  80. Devoe LD, Youssef AA, Castillo RA, Croom CS. Fetal biophysical activities in third-trimester pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994 Aug;171(2):298-303.
  81. Dierker LJ Jr, Pillay S, Sorokin Y, Rosen MG. The change in fetal activity periods in diabetic and nondiabetic pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982 May;143(2):181-185.
  82. Doherty NN, Hepper PG. Habituation in fetuses of diabetic mothers. Early Hum Dev 2000 Aug;59(2):85-93.
  83. Kainer F, Prechtl HF, Engele H, Einspieler C. Assessment of the quality of general movements in fetuses and infants of women with type-1 diabetes mellitus. Early Hum Dev 1997 Nov;50(1):13-25.
  84. Mulder EJ, O'Brien MJ, Lems YL, Visser GH, Prechtl HF. Body and breathing movements in near-term fetuses and newborn infants of type-1 diabetic women. Early Hum Dev 1990 Nov;24(2):131-152.
  85. Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. I. Early growth patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):91-106.
  86. Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. II. Emergence of specific movement patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):107-115.
  87. Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Impact of early growth delay on subsequent fetal growth and functional development: a study on diabetic pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 1992 Dec;31(2):91-95.
  88. Mulder EJ, Visser GH, Bekedam DJ, Prechtl HF. Emergence of behavioral states in fetuses of type-1 diabetic women. Early Hum Dev 1987 Jul;15(4):231-251.
  89. Mulder EJ, Visser GH, Morssink LP, de Vries JI. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. III. First trimester quantity of fetal movement patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):117-133.
  90. Aberg A, Westbom L, Kallen B. Congenital malformations among infants whose mothers had gestational diabetes or preexisting diabetes. Early Hum Dev 2001 Mar;61(2):85-95.
  91. Deregnier RA, Nelson CA, Thomas KM, Wewerka S, Georgieff MK. Neurophysiologic evaluation of auditory recognition memory in healthy newborn infants and infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatr 2000 Dec;137(6):777-784.
  92. Nelson CA, Wewerka S, Thomas KM, Tribby-Walbridge S, deRegnier R, Georgieff M. Neurocognitive sequelae of infants of diabetic mothers. Behav Neurosci 2000 Oct;114(5):950-956.
  93. Reece EA, Homko CJ. Infant of the diabetic mother. Semin Perinatol 1994 Oct;18(5):459-469.
  94. Reece EA, Homko CJ. Why do diabetic women deliver malformed infants? Clin Obstet Gynecol 2000 Mar;43(1):32-45.
  95. Rizzo T, Metzger BE, Burns WJ, Burns K. Correlations between antepartum maternal metabolism and intelligence of offspring. N Engl J Med 1991 Sep;325(13):911-916.
  96. Rizzo TA, Metzger BE, Dooley SL, Cho NH. Early malnutrition and child neurobehavioral development: insights from the study of children of diabetic mothers. Child Dev 1997 Feb;68(1):26-38.
  97. Schwartz R, Teramo KA. Effects of diabetic pregnancy on the fetus and newborn. Semin Perinatol 2000 Apr;24(2):120-135.
  98. Vaarasmaki MS, Hartikainen A, Anttila M, Pramila S, Koivisto M. Factors predicting peri- and neonatal outcome in diabetic pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 2000 Jul;59(1):61-70.
  99. Robertson SS, Dierker LJ. Fetal cyclic motor activity in diabetic pregnancies: sensitivity to maternal blood glucose. Dev Psychobiol 2003 Jan;42(1):9-16.
  100. Accardo PJ, Blondis TA, Whitman BY. Disorders of attention and activity level in a referral population. Pediatrics 1990 Mar;85(3 Pt 2):426-431.
  101. Ornoy A, Uriel L, Tennenbaum A. Inattention, hyperactivity and speech delay at 2-4 years of age as a predictor for ADDADHD syndrome. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci 1993;30(3):155-163.
  102. Smyth TR. Impaired motor skill (clumsiness) in otherwise normal children: a review. Child Care Health Dev 1992 Sep-Oct;18(5):283-300.
  103. Petersen MB, Pedersen SA, Greisen G, Pedersen JF, Mølsted- Pedersen L. Early growth delay in diabetic pregnancy: relation to psychomotor development at age 4. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1988 Feb;296(6622):598-600.
  104. Sells CJ, Robinson NM, Brown Z, Knopp RH. Long-term developmental follow-up of infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatr 1994 Jul;125(1):S9-S17.
  105. Vladareanu R, Lebit D, Constantinescu S. Ultrasound assessment of fetal neurobehaviour in high risk pregnancies. DSJUOG 2012 Apr-Jun;6(2):132-147.
  106. Talic A, Kurjak A, Ahmed B, Stanojevic M, Predojevic M, Kadic AS, Di Renzo GC. The potential of 4D sonography in the assessment of fetal behavior in high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2011 Jul;24(7):948-954.
  107. Bekedam DJ, Visser GH, de Vries JJ, Prechtl HF. Motor behaviour in the growth retarded fetus. Early Hum Dev 1985 Nov;12(2):155-165.
  108. Cioni G, Prechtl HF. Preterm and early postterm motor behaviour in low-risk premature infants. Early Hum Dev 1990 Sep;23(3):159-191.
  109. Seme-Ciglenecki P. Predictive value of assessment of general movements for neurological development of highrisk preterm infants: comparative study. Croat Med J 2003 Dec;44(6):721-727.
  110. Abo-Yaqoub S, Kurjak A, Mohammed AB, Shadad A, Abdel-Maaboud M. The role of 4-D ultrasonography in prenatal assessment of fetal neurobehaviour and prediction of neurological outcome. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2012 Mar;25(3):231-236.
  111. Athanasiadis AP, Mikos T, Tambakoudis GP, Theodoridis TD, Papastergiou M, Assimakopoulos E, Tarlatzis BC. Neurodevelopmental fetal assessment using KANET scoring system in low and high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2013 Mar;26(4):363-368.
  112. Fauser BC, Tarlatzis BC, Rebar RW, Legro RS, Balen AH, Lobo R, Carmina E, Chang J, Yildiz BO, Laven JS, et al. Consensus on women's health aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): the Amsterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored 3rd PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Fertil Steril 2012 Jan;97(1):28-38.e25
  113. Sirmans SM, Pate KA. Epidemiology, diagnosis and management of polycystic ovary syndrome. Clin Epidemiol 2014; 6:1-13.
  114. Fauser BC, Diedrich K, Bouchard P, Domínguez F, Matzuk M, Franks S, Hamamah S, Simón C, Devroey P, Ezcurra D, et al. Contemporary genetic technologies and female reproduction. Human Reproduction Update 2011 Nov;17(6):829-847.
  115. Balen A, Conway G, Kaltsas G. Polycystic ovary syndrome: the spectrum of the disorder in 1741 patients. Hum Reprod 1995 Aug;10(8):2107-2111.
  116. Azziz R, Sanchez L, Knochenhauer ES, Moran C, Lazenby J, Stephens KC, Taylor K, Boots LR. Androgen excess in women: experience with over 1000 consecutive patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004 Feb;89(2):453-462.
  117. Wild S, Pierpoint T, McKeigue P, Jacobs H. Cardiovascular disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome at longterm follow-up: a retrospective cohort study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2000 May;52(5):595-600.
  118. Hollinrake E, Abreu A, Maifeld M, Van Voorhis BJ, Dokras A. Increased risk of depressive disorders in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2007 Jun;87(6): 1369-1376.
  119. Zawadski JK, Dunaif A. Diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome. In: Givens JHF, Merriman G, editors. The polycystic ovary syndrome. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Scientific; 1992. p. 377-384.
  120. Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2004 Jan;81(1):19-25.
  121. Azziz R, Carmina E, DeWailly D, Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Escobar-Morreale HF, Futterweit W, Janssen OE, Legro RS, Norman RJ, Taylor AE, et al. Position statement: criteria for defining polycystic ovary syndrome as a predominantly hyperandrogenic syndrome: an Androgen Excess Society guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006 Nov;91(11):4237-4245.
  122. Lujan ME, Jarrett BY, Brooks ED, Reines JK, Peppin AK, Muhn N, Haider E, Pierson RA, Chizen DR. Updated ultrasound criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome: reliable thresholds for elevated follicle population and ovarian volume. Hum Reprod 2013 May;28(5):1361-1368.
  123. Badawy A, Elnashar A. Treatment options for polycystic ovary syndrome. Int J Womens Health 2011 Feb;3:25-35.
  124. ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins—Gynecology. ACOG Practice Bulletin No 108: Polycystic ovary syndrome. Obstet Gynecol 2009 Oct;114(4):936-949.
  125. Thessaloniki ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group Consensus on infertility treatment related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2008 Mar;89(3): 505-522.
  126. Balen AH. Ovulation induction in the management of anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2013 Jul;373(1-2):77-82.
  127. Berridge DL, Winter TC. Saline infusion sonohysterography: technique, indications, and imaging findings. J Ultrasound Med 2004 Jan;23(1):97-112.
  128. Allison SJ, Horrow MM, Kim HY, Lev-Toaff AS. Salineinfused sonohysterography: tips for achieving greater success. Radiographics 2011 Nov-Dec;31(7):1991-2004.
  129. O'Neill MJ. Sonohysterography. Radiol Clin North Am 2003 Jul;41(4):781-797.
  130. Bonnamy L, Marret H, Perrotin F, Body G, Berger C, Lansac J. Sonohysterography: a prospective survey of results and complications in 81 patients. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2002 Apr;102(1):42-47.
  131. Lindheim SR, Adsuar N, Kushner DM, Pritts EA, Olive DL. Sonohysterography: a valuable tool in evaluating the female pelvis. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2003 Nov;58(11):770-784.
  132. Lindheim SR, Sprague C, Winter TC. Hysterosalpingography and sonohysterography: lessons in technique. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2006 Jan;186(1):24-29.
  133. Jeanty P, Besnard S, Arnold A, Turner C, Crum P. Air-contrast sonohysterography as a first step assessment of tubal patency. J Ultrasound Med 2000 Aug;19(8):519-527.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.