World Journal of Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 9 , ISSUE 2 ( March-April, 2018 ) > List of Articles


Functionally Graded Materials: An Overview of Dental Applications

Arbaz Sajjad, Wan ZW Bakar, ShahNor Basri, Siti NS Jamaludin

Keywords : Biomaterials, Dental implants, Functionally graded materials, Graded microstructure composites, Powder metallurgy.

Citation Information : Sajjad A, Bakar WZ, Basri S, Jamaludin SN. Functionally Graded Materials: An Overview of Dental Applications. World J Dent 2018; 9 (2):137-144.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1523

License: CC BY-SA 4.0

Published Online: 01-04-2018

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2018; The Author(s).


Background: Functionally graded material (FGM) is a smart configuration for designing composite materials to improve their long-term endurance. The main characteristic of an FGM is the gradual variation in composition and microstructure across its dimensions, resulting in enhanced properties. This approach has been applied in several fields of thermal barrier coatings, power industry, biomechanical, automotive, aerospace, mechanical, civil, nuclear, aeronautic, and naval engineering. Aim: This article is intended to provide an overview of the FGMs, their application in dentistry, and the employment of the concept on the mechanical performance of dental restorative systems. Results: A thorough review of FGM dental applications has found that several researchers have been able to develop different configurations based on FGM concept to avoid failures, such as infrastructure, abutment failures in implantology, and prosthodontics. These strategies result in a gradual transition between dissimilar materials decreasing residual stresses generated during fabrication and function. Conclusion: Of late, multiple parallel researches based on the FGM concept are being carried out on dental implants coated with hydroxyapatite (HA), zirconia (Zr), and its oxides to improve osseointegration and reduce stress behavior. This review attempts to present a thorough understanding of FGMs, their characterization, manufacturing techniques and technology, and their dental applications. Clinical significance: Throughout the past decade, the use of endosteal dental implants as a treatment modality of choice in oral rehabilitation cases has increased. Unfortunately, no artificial implants have biomechanical properties equivalent to that of the surrounding bone. Based on FGM concept, a graded composition between titanium and HA/Zr on the implant surface has now been achieved that has resulted in improved mechanical behavior and osseointegration.

PDF Share
  1. Birman V, Keil T, Hosder, S. Functionally graded materials in engineering. structural interfaces and attachments in biology. New York: Springer; 2013. pp. 19-41.
  2. Muller P, Mognol P, Hascoet JY. Functionally Graded Material (FGM) parts: from design to the manufacturing simulation. Proceedings of the ASME conference on engineering systems design and analysis, France. 2012.
  3. Ho SY, Kotousov A, Nguyen P. Slurry spray and sintering method for fabricating FGM (Functionally Graded Material) thermal barrier coatings. Australia: Adelaide University; 2008.
  4. Zhang L, Han Y, Tan G. Hydroxyaptite nanorods patterned ZrO2 bilayer coating on zirconium for the application of percutaneous implants. Coll Surf B Biointerfac 2015 Mar;127:8-14.
  5. Afzal MA, Kesarwani P, Reddy KM, Kalmodia S, Basu B, Balani K. Functionally graded hydroxyapatite-aluminazirconia biocomposite: synergy of toughness and biocompatibility. Mater Sci Eng C 2012 Jul;32(5):1164-1173.
  6. Osman RB, Swain MV. A critical review of dental implant materials with an emphasis on titanium versus zirconia. Materials (Basel) 2015 Mar;8(3):932-958.
  7. Udupa G, Shrikantha Rao S, Gangadharan KV. Functionally graded composite materials: an overview. Proc Mater Sci 2014 Dec;5:1291-1299.
  8. Kawasaki A, Niino M, Kumakawa A. Multiscale, multifunctional and functionally graded materials: selected, peer reviewed papers from the 10th international symposium on MM & FGMs, 22nd to 25th September 2008. Sendai: Trans Tech; 2010.
  9. Miyamoto Y, Kaysser WA, Rabin BH, Kawasaki A, Ford RG. Functionally graded materials: design, processing and applications. New York: Springer Science & Business Media; 2013.
  10. Willert-Porada M. Design and fabrication strategy in the world of functional gradation. Int J Mater Prod Technol 2010 Jul;39(1-2):59-71.
  11. Birman V, Byrd LW. Modeling and analysis of functionally graded materials and structures. Appl Mech Rev 2007 Sep;60(5):195-216.
  12. Suresh S, Mortensen A. Fundamentals of functionally graded materials: the Institut of Materials. London: Iom communications; 1998.
  13. Lin D, Li Q, Li W, Zhou S, Swain MV. Design optimization of functionally graded dental implant for bone remodeling. Compos Part B Eng 2009 Oct;40(7):668-675.
  14. Kamal Jalali S, Yarmohammadi R, Maghsoudi F. Finite element stress analysis of functionally graded dental implant of a premolar tooth. J Mech Sci Technol 2016 Nov;30(11): 4919-4923.
  15. Gaviria L, Salcido JP, Guda T, Ong JL. Current trends in dental implants. J Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg 2014 Apr;40(2):50-60.
  16. Mehrali M, Shirazi FS, Mehrali M, Metselaar HS, Kadri NA, Osman NA. Dental implants from functionally graded materials. J Biomed Mater Res A 2013 Oct;101(10):3046-3057.
  17. Sadollah A, Bahreininejad A, Eskandar H, Hamdi M. Optimum material gradient for functionally graded dental implant using particle swarm optimization. Adv Mater Res 2013 Jan;647:30-36.
  18. Henriques B, Gonçalves S, Soares D, Silva FS. Shear bond strength comparison between conventional porcelain fused to metal and new functionally graded dental restorations after thermal-mechanical cycling. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2012 Sep;13:194-205.
  19. Mortensen A, Suresh S. Functionally graded metals and metal-ceramic composites: part 1 processing. Int Mater Rev 1995 Jan;40(6):239-265.
  20. Naebe M, Shirvanimoghaddam K. Functionally graded materials: a review of fabrication and properties. Appl Mater Today 2016 Dec;5:223-245.
  21. El-Wazery MS, El-Desouky AR. A review on functionally graded ceramic-metal materials. J Mater Environ Sci 2015 Jan;6(5):1369-1376.
  22. Torres Y, Trueba P, Pavón JJ, Chicardi E, Kamm P, García- Moreno F, Rodrigguez-Ortiz JA. Design, processing and characterization of titanium with radial graded porosity for bone implants. Mater Design 2016 Jul;110:179-187.
  23. Mahamood RM, Akinlabi ET, Shukla M, Pityana S. Functionally graded material: an overview. In: Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering. Vol. 3. London: WCE; 2012.
  24. Demirkýran AS, Avcý E. Evaluation of functionally gradient coatings produced by plasma-spray technique. Surf Coat Technol 1999 Sep;116(119):292-295.
  25. Cannillo V, Lusvarghi L, Manfredini T, Montorsi M, Siligardi C, Sola A. Glass-alumina functionally graded materials produced by plasma spraying. Key Eng Mater 2007 Mar;333:227-230.
  26. Lajevardi SA, Shahrabi T, Szpunar JA. Synthesis of functionally graded nano Al2O3-Ni composite coating by pulse electrodeposition. Appl Surf Sci 2013 Aug;279:180-188.
  27. Zhao C, Vleugels J, Vandeperre L, Basu B, Van der Biest O. Graded tribological materials formed by electrophoresis. Mater Sci Forum 1999 May;308(311):35-100.
  28. Put S, Vleugels J, Van der Biest O. Functionally graded WC-Co materials produced by electrophoretic deposition. Scr Mater 2001 Nov;45(10):1139-1145.
  29. Was GS, Jones JW, Kalnas CE, Parfitt LJ, Goldiner M. Role of ion beam assisted deposition in the synthesis and fracture of metal-ceramic multilayers. Surf Coat Technol 1994;65(1-3): 77-83.
  30. Articek U, Milfelner M, Anzel I. Synthesis of functionally graded material H13/Cu by LENS technology. Adv Prod Eng Manage 2013 Sep;8(3):169-176.
  31. Dumont AL, Bonnet J-P, Chartier T, Ferreira JM. MoSi2/Al2O3 FGM: Elaboration by tape casting and SHS. J Eur Ceramic Soc 2001 Jan;21(13):2353-2360.
  32. Groves JF, Wadley HN. Functionally graded materials synthesis via low vacuum directed vapor deposition. Compos Part B Eng 1997;28(1-2):57-69.
  33. Nemat-Alla MM, Ata MH, Bayoumi MR, Khair-Eldeen W. Powder metallurgical fabrication and microstructural investigations of aluminum/steel functionally graded material. Mater Sci Appl 2011 Dec;2(12):1708-1718.
  34. Watari F, Yokoyama A, Matsuno H, Miyao R, Uo M, Kawasaki T, Omori M, Hira T. Fabrication of functionally graded implant and its biocompatibility. In: Ichikawa K, editor. Functionally graded materials in the 21st century; Boston (MA): Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2001. pp. 187-190.
  35. Tao H, Deng CJ, Zhang LM, Yuan RZ. Fabrication of Al/Al2O3 composites and FGM. J Mater Sci Technol 2001 Jan;17(6): 646-648.
  36. Ilschner B, Cherradi N 3rd. International symposium on structural and functional gradient materials: 10-12 October 1994, Swiss Federal Institue of Technology of Laussanne. Switzerland: Presses Polytechniques et Universitaires Romandes; 1995.
  37. Kieback B, Neubrand A, Riedel H. Processing techniques for functionally graded materials. Mater Sci Eng A 2003 Feb;362(1):81-106.
  38. Gasik MM. Functionally graded materials: bulk processing techniques. Int J Mater Prod Technol 2010 Jul;39(1-2): 20-29.
  39. Zhu J, Lai Z, Yin Z, Jeon J, Lee S. Fabrication of ZrO2-NiCr functionally graded material by powder metallurgy. Mater Chem Physics 2001 Feb;68(1):130-135.
  40. Watanabe Y, Inaguma Y, Sato H, Miura-Fujiwara E. A novel fabrication method for functionally graded materials under centrifugal force: the centrifugal mixed-powder method. Materials (Basel) 2009 Dec;2(4):2510-2525.
  41. Boboulos, MA. CAD-CAM and rapid prototyping application evaluation. London: Bookboon; 2010.
  42. Mishina H, Inumaru Y, Kaitoku K. Fabrication of ZrO2/ AISI316L functionally graded materials for joint prostheses. Mater Sci Eng A 2008;475(1):141-147.
  43. EL-Wazery MS, EI-Desouky AR. Fabrication and characteristics of 8YSZ/Ni functionally graded materials by applying spark plasma sintering procedure. Int J Appl Sci Eng 2014 Sep;12(4):313-321.
  44. Paul W, Sharma CP. Effect of calcium, zinc and magnesium on the attachment and spreading of osteoblast like cells onto ceramic matrices. J Mater Sci Mater Med 2007 May;18(5): 699-703.
  45. Silva VV, Lameiras FS. Synthesis and characterization of composite powders of partially stabilized zirconia and hydroxyapatite. Mater Charact 2000 Jul;45(1):51-59.
  46. Denry I, Kelly JR. Emerging ceramic-based materials for dentistry. J Dent Res 2014 Dec;93(12):1235-1242.
  47. Canakci A, Varol T, Özkaya S, Erdemir F. Microstructure and properties of Al-B 4 C functionally graded materials produced by powder metallurgy method. Univ J Mater Sci 2014;2(5):90-95.
  48. Bhattacharyya M, Kumar AN, Kapuria S. Synthesis and characterization of Al/SiC and Ni/Al2O3 functionally graded materials. Mater Sci Eng A 2008 Jul;487(1-2):524-535.
  49. Chenglin C, Jingchuan Z, Zhongda Y, Shidong W. Hydroxyapatite-Ti functionally graded biomaterial fabricated by powder metallurgy. Mater Sci Eng A 1999 Nov;271(1):95-100.
  50. Oleiwi JK, Anaee RA, Muhsin SA. Fabrication, characterization and physical properties of functionally graded Ti/HAP bioimplants. Wulfenia J 2015 Jul;22(7):336-348.
  51. Ogawa T, Watanabe Y, Sato H, Kim IS, Fukui Y. Theoretical study on fabrication of functionally graded material with density gradient by a centrifugal solid-particle method. Compos Part A Appl S 2006 Dec;37(12):2194-2200.
  52. Yang ZM, Tian F, Zhang LM. Theoretical study on two sedimentation processes used to form functionally graded materials. J Mater Sci Lett 2003 May;22(10):739-741.
  53. Yang ZM, Gong DR, Zhang LM. Design of co-sedimentation experiments used to fabricate functionally graded materials with a continuous change of composition. J Wuhan Univ Technol Mater Sci Ed 2004 Jan;19(2):11-13.
  54. Jin G, Takeuchi M, Honda S, Nishikawa T, Awaji H. Properties of multilayered mullite/Mo functionally graded materials fabricated by powder metallurgy processing. Mater Chem Physics 2005 Feb;89(2):238-243.
  55. Jamaludin SN, Basri S, Hussain A, Al-Othmany DS, Mustapha F, Nuruzzaman DM. Three-dimensional finite element modeling of thermomechanical problems in functionally graded hydroxyapatite/titanium plate. Math Probl Eng 2014 Apr;2014:371462.
  56. Halpern LR, Dodson TB. Does prophylactic administration of systemic antibiotics prevent postoperative inflammatory complications after third molar surgery? J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2007 Feb;65(2):177-185.
  57. Lopez-Cedrun JL, Pijoan JI, Fernandez S, Santamaria J, Hernandez G. Efficacy of amoxycillin treatment in preventing postoperative complications in patients undergoing third molar surgery: a prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled study. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2011 Jun;69(6):e5-e14.
  58. Arteagoitia MI, Barbier L, Santamaria J, Santamaria G, Ramos E. Efficacy of amoxicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in the prevention of infection and dry socket after third molar extraction. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2016 Jul;21(4):e494-e504.
  59. Piltz JR, Starita RJ. The use of subconjunctivally administered tissue plasminogen activator after trabeculectomy. Ophthalmic Surg 1994 Jan;25(1):51-53.
  60. Por YM, Tan YL, Mehta JS, Tan DT. Intracameral fibrin tissue sealant as an adjunct in tectonic lamellar keratoplasty for large corneal perforations. Cornea 2009 May;28(4):451-455.
  61. Sakarya Y, Sakarya R, Yildirim A. Sutureless amniotic membrane fixation with fibrin glue in symptomatic bullous keratopathy with poor visual potential. Eur J Ophthalmol 2010 Jan-Feb;20(1):249; author reply 249-250.
  62. Lee GA, Holcombe DJ. Surgical revision of dysfunctional filtration blebs with bleb preservation sliding conjunctival flap and fibrin glue. Eye (Lond) 2010 Jun;24(6):947-953.
  63. Kahook MY, Noecker RJ. Fibrin glue-assisted glaucoma drainage device surgery. Br J Ophthalmol 2006 Dec;90(12):1486-1489.
  64. Valimaki J. Fibrin glue for preventing immediate postoperative hypotony following glaucoma drainage implant surgery. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 2006 Jun;84(3):372-374.
  65. Malhotra C, Jain AK. Human amniotic membrane transplantation: different modalities of its use in ophthalmology. World J Transplant 2014 Jun;4(2):111-121.
  66. Dua HS, Gomes JA, King AJ, Maharajan VS. The amniotic membrane in ophthalmology. Surv Ophthalmol 2004 Jan-Feb;49(1):51-77.
  67. Shimmura S, Shimazaki J, Ohashi Y, Tsubota K. Antiinflammatory effects of amniotic membrane transplantation in ocular surface disorders. Cornea 2001 May;20(4):408-413.
  68. Yazdani S, Mahboobipour H, Pakravan M, Doozandeh A, Ghahari E. Adjunctive mitomycin c or amniotic membrane transplantation for Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation: a randomized clinical trial. J Glaucoma 2016 May;25(5):415-421.
  69. Sheha H, Kheirkhah A, Taha H. Amniotic membrane transplantation in trabeculectomy with mitomycin C for refractory glaucoma. J Glaucoma 2008 Jun-Jul;17(4):303-307.
  70. Khairy HA, Elsawy MF. Trabeculectomy with mitomycin-C versus trabeculectomy with amniotic membrane transplant: a medium-term randomized controlled trial. J Glaucoma 2015 Sep;24(7):556-559.
  71. Rauscher FM, Barton K, Budenz DL, Feuer WJ, Tseng SC. Long-term outcomes of amniotic membrane transplantation for repair of leaking glaucoma filtering blebs. Am J Ophthalmol 2007 Jun;143(6):1052-1054.
  72. Sethi P, Patel RN, Goldhardt R, Ayyala RS. Conjunctival advancement with subconjunctival amniotic membrane draping technique for leaking cystic blebs. J Glaucoma 2016 Feb;25(2):188-192.
  73. Kitagawa K, Yanagisawa S, Watanabe K, Yunoki T, Hayashi A, Okabe M, Nikaido T. A hyperdry amniotic membrane patch using a tissue adhesive for corneal perforations and bleb leaks. Am J Ophthalmol 2009 Sep;148(3):383-389.
  74. Nagai-Kusuhara A, Nakamura M, Fujioka M, Negi A. Longterm results of amniotic membrane transplantation-assisted bleb revision for leaking blebs. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2008 Apr;246(4):567-571.
  75. Rai P, Lauande-Pimentel R, Barton K. Amniotic membrane as an adjunct to donor sclera in the repair of exposed glaucoma drainage devices. Am J Ophthalmol 2005 Dec;140(6): 1148-1152.
  76. Ainsworth G, Rotchford A, Dua HS, King AJ. A novel use of amniotic membrane in the management of tube exposure following glaucoma tube shunt surgery. Br J Ophthalmol 2006 Apr;90(4):417-419.
  77. Papadaki TG, Siganos CS, Zacharopoulos IP, Panteleontidis V, Charissis SK. Human amniotic membrane transplantation for tube exposure after glaucoma drainage device implantation. J Glaucoma 2007 Jan;16(1):171-172.
  78. Mulder EJ, Leiblum DM, Visser GH. Fetal breathing movements in late diabetic pregnancy: relationship to fetal heart rate patterns and Braxton Hicks’ contractions. Early Hum Dev 1995 Nov;43(3):225-232.
  79. Schulte FJ, Michaelis R, Nolte R, Albert G, Parl U, Lasson U. Brain and behavioral maturation in newborn infants of diabetic mothers. I. Nerve conduction and EEG patterns. Neuropadiatrie 1969 Jan-Jul;1(1):24-35.
  80. Devoe LD, Youssef AA, Castillo RA, Croom CS. Fetal biophysical activities in third-trimester pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994 Aug;171(2):298-303.
  81. Dierker LJ Jr, Pillay S, Sorokin Y, Rosen MG. The change in fetal activity periods in diabetic and nondiabetic pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982 May;143(2):181-185.
  82. Doherty NN, Hepper PG. Habituation in fetuses of diabetic mothers. Early Hum Dev 2000 Aug;59(2):85-93.
  83. Kainer F, Prechtl HF, Engele H, Einspieler C. Assessment of the quality of general movements in fetuses and infants of women with type-1 diabetes mellitus. Early Hum Dev 1997 Nov;50(1):13-25.
  84. Mulder EJ, O'Brien MJ, Lems YL, Visser GH, Prechtl HF. Body and breathing movements in near-term fetuses and newborn infants of type-1 diabetic women. Early Hum Dev 1990 Nov;24(2):131-152.
  85. Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. I. Early growth patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):91-106.
  86. Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. II. Emergence of specific movement patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):107-115.
  87. Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Impact of early growth delay on subsequent fetal growth and functional development: a study on diabetic pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 1992 Dec;31(2):91-95.
  88. Mulder EJ, Visser GH, Bekedam DJ, Prechtl HF. Emergence of behavioral states in fetuses of type-1 diabetic women. Early Hum Dev 1987 Jul;15(4):231-251.
  89. Mulder EJ, Visser GH, Morssink LP, de Vries JI. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. III. First trimester quantity of fetal movement patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):117-133.
  90. Aberg A, Westbom L, Kallen B. Congenital malformations among infants whose mothers had gestational diabetes or preexisting diabetes. Early Hum Dev 2001 Mar;61(2):85-95.
  91. Deregnier RA, Nelson CA, Thomas KM, Wewerka S, Georgieff MK. Neurophysiologic evaluation of auditory recognition memory in healthy newborn infants and infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatr 2000 Dec;137(6):777-784.
  92. Nelson CA, Wewerka S, Thomas KM, Tribby-Walbridge S, deRegnier R, Georgieff M. Neurocognitive sequelae of infants of diabetic mothers. Behav Neurosci 2000 Oct;114(5):950-956.
  93. Reece EA, Homko CJ. Infant of the diabetic mother. Semin Perinatol 1994 Oct;18(5):459-469.
  94. Reece EA, Homko CJ. Why do diabetic women deliver malformed infants? Clin Obstet Gynecol 2000 Mar;43(1):32-45.
  95. Rizzo T, Metzger BE, Burns WJ, Burns K. Correlations between antepartum maternal metabolism and intelligence of offspring. N Engl J Med 1991 Sep;325(13):911-916.
  96. Rizzo TA, Metzger BE, Dooley SL, Cho NH. Early malnutrition and child neurobehavioral development: insights from the study of children of diabetic mothers. Child Dev 1997 Feb;68(1):26-38.
  97. Schwartz R, Teramo KA. Effects of diabetic pregnancy on the fetus and newborn. Semin Perinatol 2000 Apr;24(2):120-135.
  98. Vaarasmaki MS, Hartikainen A, Anttila M, Pramila S, Koivisto M. Factors predicting peri- and neonatal outcome in diabetic pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 2000 Jul;59(1):61-70.
  99. Robertson SS, Dierker LJ. Fetal cyclic motor activity in diabetic pregnancies: sensitivity to maternal blood glucose. Dev Psychobiol 2003 Jan;42(1):9-16.
  100. Accardo PJ, Blondis TA, Whitman BY. Disorders of attention and activity level in a referral population. Pediatrics 1990 Mar;85(3 Pt 2):426-431.
  101. Ornoy A, Uriel L, Tennenbaum A. Inattention, hyperactivity and speech delay at 2-4 years of age as a predictor for ADDADHD syndrome. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci 1993;30(3):155-163.
  102. Smyth TR. Impaired motor skill (clumsiness) in otherwise normal children: a review. Child Care Health Dev 1992 Sep-Oct;18(5):283-300.
  103. Petersen MB, Pedersen SA, Greisen G, Pedersen JF, Mølsted- Pedersen L. Early growth delay in diabetic pregnancy: relation to psychomotor development at age 4. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1988 Feb;296(6622):598-600.
  104. Sells CJ, Robinson NM, Brown Z, Knopp RH. Long-term developmental follow-up of infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatr 1994 Jul;125(1):S9-S17.
  105. Vladareanu R, Lebit D, Constantinescu S. Ultrasound assessment of fetal neurobehaviour in high risk pregnancies. DSJUOG 2012 Apr-Jun;6(2):132-147.
  106. Talic A, Kurjak A, Ahmed B, Stanojevic M, Predojevic M, Kadic AS, Di Renzo GC. The potential of 4D sonography in the assessment of fetal behavior in high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2011 Jul;24(7):948-954.
  107. Bekedam DJ, Visser GH, de Vries JJ, Prechtl HF. Motor behaviour in the growth retarded fetus. Early Hum Dev 1985 Nov;12(2):155-165.
  108. Cioni G, Prechtl HF. Preterm and early postterm motor behaviour in low-risk premature infants. Early Hum Dev 1990 Sep;23(3):159-191.
  109. Seme-Ciglenecki P. Predictive value of assessment of general movements for neurological development of highrisk preterm infants: comparative study. Croat Med J 2003 Dec;44(6):721-727.
  110. Abo-Yaqoub S, Kurjak A, Mohammed AB, Shadad A, Abdel-Maaboud M. The role of 4-D ultrasonography in prenatal assessment of fetal neurobehaviour and prediction of neurological outcome. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2012 Mar;25(3):231-236.
  111. Athanasiadis AP, Mikos T, Tambakoudis GP, Theodoridis TD, Papastergiou M, Assimakopoulos E, Tarlatzis BC. Neurodevelopmental fetal assessment using KANET scoring system in low and high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2013 Mar;26(4):363-368.
  112. Fauser BC, Tarlatzis BC, Rebar RW, Legro RS, Balen AH, Lobo R, Carmina E, Chang J, Yildiz BO, Laven JS, et al. Consensus on women's health aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): the Amsterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored 3rd PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Fertil Steril 2012 Jan;97(1):28-38.e25
  113. Sirmans SM, Pate KA. Epidemiology, diagnosis and management of polycystic ovary syndrome. Clin Epidemiol 2014; 6:1-13.
  114. Fauser BC, Diedrich K, Bouchard P, Domínguez F, Matzuk M, Franks S, Hamamah S, Simón C, Devroey P, Ezcurra D, et al. Contemporary genetic technologies and female reproduction. Human Reproduction Update 2011 Nov;17(6):829-847.
  115. Balen A, Conway G, Kaltsas G. Polycystic ovary syndrome: the spectrum of the disorder in 1741 patients. Hum Reprod 1995 Aug;10(8):2107-2111.
  116. Azziz R, Sanchez L, Knochenhauer ES, Moran C, Lazenby J, Stephens KC, Taylor K, Boots LR. Androgen excess in women: experience with over 1000 consecutive patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004 Feb;89(2):453-462.
  117. Wild S, Pierpoint T, McKeigue P, Jacobs H. Cardiovascular disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome at longterm follow-up: a retrospective cohort study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2000 May;52(5):595-600.
  118. Hollinrake E, Abreu A, Maifeld M, Van Voorhis BJ, Dokras A. Increased risk of depressive disorders in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2007 Jun;87(6): 1369-1376.
  119. Zawadski JK, Dunaif A. Diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome. In: Givens JHF, Merriman G, editors. The polycystic ovary syndrome. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Scientific; 1992. p. 377-384.
  120. Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2004 Jan;81(1):19-25.
  121. Azziz R, Carmina E, DeWailly D, Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Escobar-Morreale HF, Futterweit W, Janssen OE, Legro RS, Norman RJ, Taylor AE, et al. Position statement: criteria for defining polycystic ovary syndrome as a predominantly hyperandrogenic syndrome: an Androgen Excess Society guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006 Nov;91(11):4237-4245.
  122. Lujan ME, Jarrett BY, Brooks ED, Reines JK, Peppin AK, Muhn N, Haider E, Pierson RA, Chizen DR. Updated ultrasound criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome: reliable thresholds for elevated follicle population and ovarian volume. Hum Reprod 2013 May;28(5):1361-1368.
  123. Badawy A, Elnashar A. Treatment options for polycystic ovary syndrome. Int J Womens Health 2011 Feb;3:25-35.
  124. ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins—Gynecology. ACOG Practice Bulletin No 108: Polycystic ovary syndrome. Obstet Gynecol 2009 Oct;114(4):936-949.
  125. Thessaloniki ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group Consensus on infertility treatment related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2008 Mar;89(3): 505-522.
  126. Balen AH. Ovulation induction in the management of anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2013 Jul;373(1-2):77-82.
  127. Berridge DL, Winter TC. Saline infusion sonohysterography: technique, indications, and imaging findings. J Ultrasound Med 2004 Jan;23(1):97-112.
  128. Allison SJ, Horrow MM, Kim HY, Lev-Toaff AS. Salineinfused sonohysterography: tips for achieving greater success. Radiographics 2011 Nov-Dec;31(7):1991-2004.
  129. O'Neill MJ. Sonohysterography. Radiol Clin North Am 2003 Jul;41(4):781-797.
  130. Bonnamy L, Marret H, Perrotin F, Body G, Berger C, Lansac J. Sonohysterography: a prospective survey of results and complications in 81 patients. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2002 Apr;102(1):42-47.
  131. Lindheim SR, Adsuar N, Kushner DM, Pritts EA, Olive DL. Sonohysterography: a valuable tool in evaluating the female pelvis. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2003 Nov;58(11):770-784.
  132. Lindheim SR, Sprague C, Winter TC. Hysterosalpingography and sonohysterography: lessons in technique. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2006 Jan;186(1):24-29.
  133. Jeanty P, Besnard S, Arnold A, Turner C, Crum P. Air-contrast sonohysterography as a first step assessment of tubal patency. J Ultrasound Med 2000 Aug;19(8):519-527.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.