World Journal of Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 9 , ISSUE 2 ( March-April, 2018 ) > List of Articles

REVIEW ARTICLE

Microbiology of Postoperative Infections after Third Molar Surgery: A Systematic Review of Case Reports

Rohit K Menon, Divya Gopinath

Keywords : Case reports, Extraction, Review, Surgical wound infection, Third molar.

Citation Information : Menon RK, Gopinath D. Microbiology of Postoperative Infections after Third Molar Surgery: A Systematic Review of Case Reports. World J Dent 2018; 9 (2):132-136.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1522

License: CC BY-SA 4.0

Published Online: 01-04-2018

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2018; The Author(s).


Abstract

Background: Antibiotic treatment for a clinical infection should be based on a thorough knowledge of the causative organisms involved in the infection. Methods used to evaluate microbiology should provide a comprehensive and accurate assessment of the microbiological spectrum. Currently, there is limited evidence on the microbiology of postoperative infection after third molar surgery, leading to inappropriate antibiotic prescription. Aim: The objective of this review was to summarize the current documented evidence on bacteriology of postoperative infection samples after third molar surgery with a systematic search of the literature. Results: A systematic search was performed in three databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and Medline-Ovid) on March 17, 2017 with no filters applied. After exclusion of duplicates, 142 records were screened, based on predetermined exclusion criteria and finally, 11 case reports recording microbiological data for clinical infection samples were selected. The most common genus of organisms isolated from third molar infections was Streptococcus. Anaerobic species dominated in cases where prior antibiotic treatment was initiated. However, documented microbiological data are only culture based and predominantly report fascial space infections after third molar surgery. Conclusion: Culture-based methods may not be accurately representing the true microbial profile of postoperative infections. There is an urgent need for comprehensive microbiological data employing next-generation sequencing techniques on postoperative infections to prevent inappropriate antibiotic prescription. Clinical significance: Prescribing broad spectrum antibiotics to treat postoperative infections with inadequate information on the microbiology is a questionable clinical practice that propagates antibiotic resistance. Clinicians should utilize recent advances in microbiological diagnosis to reduce unsuitable antibiotic prescription.


PDF Share
  1. Marioni G, Rinaldi R, Staffieri C, Marchese-Ragona R, Saia G, Stramare R, Bertolin A, Dal Borgo R, Ragno F, Staffieri A. Deep neck infection with dental origin: analysis of 85 consecutive cases (2000-2006). Acta Otolaryngol 2008 Feb;128(2):201-206.
  2. de Oliveira Neto PJ, de Souza Maliska MC, Sawazaki R, Asprino L, de Moraes M, Moreira RW. Temporal abscess after third molar extraction in the mandible. Oral Maxillofac Surg 2012 Mar;16(1):107-110.
  3. Moses JJ, Lange CR, Arredondo A. Septic arthritis of the temporomandibular joint after the removal of third molars. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1998 Apr;56(4):510-512.
  4. Sakkas N, Schoen R, Schmelzeisen R. Orbital abscess after extraction of a maxillary wisdom tooth. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2007 Apr;45(3):245-246.
  5. Yun MW, Hwang CF, Lui CC. Cavernous sinus thrombosis following odontogenic and cervicofacial infection. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 1991 Oct;248(7):422-424.
  6. Benediktsdottir IS, Wenzel A, Petersen JK, Hintze H. Mandibular third molar removal: risk indicators for extended operation time, postoperative pain, and complications. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Path Oral Radiol Endod 2004 Apr;97(4):438-446.
  7. Bouloux GF, Steed MB, Perciaccante VJ. Complications of third molar surgery. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am 2007 Feb;19(1):117-128.
  8. Bui CH, Seldin EB, Dodson TD. Types, frequencies, and risk factors for complications after third molar extraction. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2003 Dec;61(12):1379-1389.
  9. Chiapasco M, De Cicco L, Marrone G. Side effects and complications associated with third molar surgery. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Path 1993 Oct;76(4):412-420.
  10. de Boer MP, Raghoebar GM, Stegenga B, Schoen PJ, Boering G. Complications after mandibular third molar extraction. Quintessence Int 1995 Nov;26(11):779-784.
  11. Goldberg MH, Nemarich AN, Marco WP 2nd. Complications after mandibular third molar surgery: a statistical analysis of 500 consecutive procedures in private practice. J Am Dent Assoc 1985 Aug;111(2):277-279.
  12. Haug RH, Perrott DH, Gonzalez ML, Talwar RM. The American association of oral and maxillofacial surgeons age-related third molar study. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2005 Aug;63(8):1106-1114.
  13. Osborn TP, Frederickson G Jr, Small IA, Torgerson TS. A prospective study of complications related to mandibular third molar surgery. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1985 Oct;43(10): 767-769.
  14. Sisk AL, Hammer WB, Shelton DW, Joy ED Jr. Complications following removal of impacted third molars: the role of the experience of the surgeon. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1986 Nov;44(11):855-859.
  15. Ricalde P, Engroff SL, Jansisyanont P, Ord RA. Paediatric necrotizing fasciitis complicating third molar extraction: report of a case. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2004 Jun;33(4):411-414.
  16. Al-Muharraqi MA, O'Sullivan EC. Unilateral facial nerve paralysis following an infected lower third molar. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2010 Feb;39(2):192-195.
  17. Yuvaraj V, Krishnan B. Anterior chest wall abscess–an unusual complication of an odontogenic infection. Oral Maxillofac Surg 2010 Dec;14(4):239-241.
  18. Hobson DT, Imudia AN, Soto E, Awonuga AO. Pregnancy complicated by recurrent brain abscess after extraction of an infected tooth. Obstet Gynecol 2011 Aug;118(2 Pt 2):467-470.
  19. Figueiredo R, Valmaseda-Castellon E, Formoso-Senande MF, Berini-Aytes L, Gay-Escoda C. Delayed-onset infections after impacted lower third molar extraction: involved bacteria and sensitivity profiles to commonly used antibiotics. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Path Oral Radiol 2012 Jul;114(1):43-48.
  20. Leavitt BD, Van Ess JM. Rapid, early-onset group a streptococcus infection after impacted third molar removal: a review and case series. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2012 Sep;70(12):2742-2747.
  21. Gayle EA, Young SM, McKenna SJ, McNaughton CD. Septic arthritis of the temporomandibular joint: case reports and review of the literature. J Emerg Med 2013 Nov;45(5):674-678.
  22. Flynn TR, Shanti RM, Hayes C. Severe odontogenic infections, part 2: prospective outcomes study. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2006 Jul;64(7):1104-1113.
  23. Flynn TR, Shanti RM, Levi MH, Adamo AK, Kraut RA, Trieger N. Severe odontogenic infections, part 1: prospective report. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2006 Jul;64(7):1093-1103.
  24. Sixou JL, Magaud C, Jolivet-Gougeon A, Cormier M, Bonnaure- Mallet M. Evaluation of the mandibular third molar pericoronitis flora and its susceptibility to different antibiotics prescribed in france. J Clin Microbiol 2003 Dec;41(12):5794-5797.
  25. Sixou JL, Magaud C, Jolivet-Gougeon A, Cormier M, Bonnaure- Mallet M. Microbiology of mandibular third molar pericoronitis: incidence of beta-lactamase-producing bacteria. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Path Oral Radiol Endod 2003 Jun;95(6):655-659.
  26. Bik EM, Long CD, Armitage GC, Loomer P, Emerson J, Mongodin EF, Nelson KE, Gill SR, Fraser-Liggett CM, Relman DA. Bacterial diversity in the oral cavity of 10 healthy individuals. ISME J 2010 Aug;4(8):962-974.
  27. Zaura E, Keijser BJ, Huse SM, Crielaard W. Defining the healthy “core microbiome” of oral microbial communities. BMC Microbiol 2009 Dec;9:259.
  28. Abeles SR, Jones MB, Santiago-Rodriguez TM, Ly M, Klitgord N, Yooseph S, Nelson KE, Pride DT. Microbial diversity in individuals and their household contacts following typical antibiotic courses. Microbiome 2016 Jul;4(1):39.
  29. Zaura E, Brandt BW, Teixeira de Mattos MJ, Buijs MJ, Caspers MP, Rashid MU, Weintraub A, Nord CE, Savell A, Hu Y, et al. Same exposure but two radically different responses to antibiotics: resilience of the salivary microbiome versus long-term microbial shifts in feces. MBio 2015 Nov;6(6):e01693-e01715.
  30. Lodi G, Figini L, Sardella A, Carrassi A, Del Fabbro M, Furness S. Antibiotics to prevent complications following tooth extractions. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012 Nov;11:CD003811.
  31. Al-Sebaei MO, Jan AM. A survey to assess knowledge, practice, and attitude of dentists in the Western region of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J 2016 Apr;37(4):440-445.
  32. Azodo CC, Ojehanon PI. Antibiotics prescription in Nigerian dental healthcare services. Odontostomatol Trop 2014 Sep;37(147):34-42.
  33. Dar-Odeh NS, Abu-Hammad OA, Khraisat AS, El Maaytah MA, Shehabi A. An analysis of therapeutic, adult antibiotic prescriptions issued by dental practitioners in Jordan. Chemotherapy 2008 Feb;54(1):17-22.
  34. Garg AK, Agrawal N, Tewari RK, Kumar A, Chandra A. Antibiotic prescription pattern among Indian oral healthcare providers: a cross-sectional survey. J Antimicrob Chemother 2014 Feb;69(2):526-528.
  35. Halboub E, Alzaili A, Quadri MF, Al-Haroni M, Al-Obaida MI, Al-Hebshi NN. Antibiotic prescription knowledge of dentists in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: an online, country-wide survey. J Contemp Dent Pract 2016 Mar;17(3):198-204.
  36. Ogunbodede EO, Fatusi OA, Folayan MO, Olayiwola G. Retrospective survey of antibiotic prescriptions in dentistry. J Contemp Dent Pract 2005 May;6(2):64-71.
  37. Palmer NA, Pealing R, Ireland RS, Martin MV. A study of therapeutic antibiotic prescribing in National Health Service general dental practice in England. Br Dent J 2000 May;188(10):554-558.
  38. Peric M, Perkovic I, Romic M, Simeon P, Matijevic J, Mehicic GP, Krmek SJ. The pattern of antibiotic prescribing by dental practitioners in Zagreb, Croatia. Cent Eur J Public Health 2015 Jun;23(2):107-113.
  39. Preus HR, Albandar JM, Gjermo P. Antibiotic prescribing practices among Norwegian dentists. Scand J Dent Res 1992 Aug;100(4):232-235.
  40. Roberts RM, Bartoces M, Thompson SE, Hicks LA. Antibiotic prescribing by general dentists in the United States, 2013. J Am Dent Assoc 2017 Mar;148(3):172.e1-178.e1.
  41. Roy KM, Bagg J. Antibiotic prescribing by general dental practitioners in the Greater Glasgow Health Board, Scotland. Br Dent J 2000 Jun;188(12):674-676.
  42. Sarkar C, Das B, Baral P. An audit of drug prescribing practices of dentists. Indian J Dent Res 2004 Apr-Jun;15(2):58-61.
  43. Demirbas F, Gjermo PE, Preus HR. Antibiotic prescribing practices among Norwegian dentists. Acta Odontol Scand 2006 Nov;64(6):355-359.
  44. Goud SR, Nagesh L, Fernandes S. Are we eliminating cures with antibiotic abuse? A study among dentists. Nigerian J Clin Pract 2012 Apr-Jun;15(2):151-155.
  45. Kohler M, Meyer J, Linder M, Lambrecht JT, Filippi A, Kulik Kunz EM. Prescription of antibiotics in the dental practice: a survey of dentists in Switzerland. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed 2013 Oct;123(9):748-759.
  46. Sancho-Puchades M, Herraez-Vilas JM, Valmaseda-Castellon E, Berini-Aytes L, Gay-Escoda C. Analysis of the antibiotic prophylaxis prescribed by Spanish Oral Surgeons. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2009 Oct;14(10):e533-e537.
  47. Thomas DW, Hill CM. An audit of antibiotic prescribing in third molar surgery. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1997 Apr;35(2):126-128.
  48. Arteagoitia MI, Ramos E, Santamaria G, Alvarez J, Barbier L, Santamaria J. Survey of Spanish dentists on the prescription of antibiotics and antiseptics in surgery for impacted lower third molars. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2016 Jan;21(1): e82-e87.
  49. Jaunay T, Sambrook P, Goss A. Antibiotic prescribing practices by South Australian general dental practitioners. Aust Dent J 2000 Sep;45(3):179-186, quiz 214.
  50. Vlcek D, Razavi A, Kuttenberger JJ. Antibiotics in third molar surgery. Swiss Dent J 2014;124(3):294-302.
  51. Arteagoitia I, Ramos E, Santamaria G, Barbier L, Alvarez J, Santamaria J. Amoxycillin/clavulanic acid 2000/125 mg to prevent complications due to infection following completely bone-impacted lower third molar removal: a clinical trial. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2015 Jan;119(1): 8-16.
  52. Adde CA, Soares MS, Romano MM, Carnaval TG, Sampaio RM, Aldarvis FP, Federico LR. Clinical and surgical evaluation of the indication of postoperative antibiotic prescription in third molar surgery. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2012 Nov;114(5 Suppl):S26-S31.
  53. Arteagoitia I, Diez A, Barbier L, Santamaria G, Santamaria J. Efficacy of amoxycillin/clavulanic acid in preventing infectious and inflammatory complications following impacted mandibular third molar extraction. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2005 Jul;100(1):e11-e18.
  54. Lacasa JM, Jimenez JA, Ferras V, Bossom M, Sola-Morales O, Garcia-Rey C, Aguilar L, Garau J. Prophylaxis versus preemptive treatment for infective and inflammatory complications of surgical third molar removal: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial with sustained release amoxycillin/clavulanic acid (1000/62.5 mg). Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2007 Apr;36(4):321-327.
  55. Pasupathy S, Alexander M. Antibiotic prophylaxis in third molar surgery. J Craniofac Surg 2011 Mar;22(2):551-553.
  56. Halpern LR, Dodson TB. Does prophylactic administration of systemic antibiotics prevent postoperative inflammatory complications after third molar surgery? J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2007 Feb;65(2):177-185.
  57. Lopez-Cedrun JL, Pijoan JI, Fernandez S, Santamaria J, Hernandez G. Efficacy of amoxycillin treatment in preventing postoperative complications in patients undergoing third molar surgery: a prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled study. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2011 Jun;69(6):e5-e14.
  58. Arteagoitia MI, Barbier L, Santamaria J, Santamaria G, Ramos E. Efficacy of amoxicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in the prevention of infection and dry socket after third molar extraction. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2016 Jul;21(4):e494-e504.
  59. Piltz JR, Starita RJ. The use of subconjunctivally administered tissue plasminogen activator after trabeculectomy. Ophthalmic Surg 1994 Jan;25(1):51-53.
  60. Por YM, Tan YL, Mehta JS, Tan DT. Intracameral fibrin tissue sealant as an adjunct in tectonic lamellar keratoplasty for large corneal perforations. Cornea 2009 May;28(4):451-455.
  61. Sakarya Y, Sakarya R, Yildirim A. Sutureless amniotic membrane fixation with fibrin glue in symptomatic bullous keratopathy with poor visual potential. Eur J Ophthalmol 2010 Jan-Feb;20(1):249; author reply 249-250.
  62. Lee GA, Holcombe DJ. Surgical revision of dysfunctional filtration blebs with bleb preservation sliding conjunctival flap and fibrin glue. Eye (Lond) 2010 Jun;24(6):947-953.
  63. Kahook MY, Noecker RJ. Fibrin glue-assisted glaucoma drainage device surgery. Br J Ophthalmol 2006 Dec;90(12):1486-1489.
  64. Valimaki J. Fibrin glue for preventing immediate postoperative hypotony following glaucoma drainage implant surgery. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 2006 Jun;84(3):372-374.
  65. Malhotra C, Jain AK. Human amniotic membrane transplantation: different modalities of its use in ophthalmology. World J Transplant 2014 Jun;4(2):111-121.
  66. Dua HS, Gomes JA, King AJ, Maharajan VS. The amniotic membrane in ophthalmology. Surv Ophthalmol 2004 Jan-Feb;49(1):51-77.
  67. Shimmura S, Shimazaki J, Ohashi Y, Tsubota K. Antiinflammatory effects of amniotic membrane transplantation in ocular surface disorders. Cornea 2001 May;20(4):408-413.
  68. Yazdani S, Mahboobipour H, Pakravan M, Doozandeh A, Ghahari E. Adjunctive mitomycin c or amniotic membrane transplantation for Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation: a randomized clinical trial. J Glaucoma 2016 May;25(5):415-421.
  69. Sheha H, Kheirkhah A, Taha H. Amniotic membrane transplantation in trabeculectomy with mitomycin C for refractory glaucoma. J Glaucoma 2008 Jun-Jul;17(4):303-307.
  70. Khairy HA, Elsawy MF. Trabeculectomy with mitomycin-C versus trabeculectomy with amniotic membrane transplant: a medium-term randomized controlled trial. J Glaucoma 2015 Sep;24(7):556-559.
  71. Rauscher FM, Barton K, Budenz DL, Feuer WJ, Tseng SC. Long-term outcomes of amniotic membrane transplantation for repair of leaking glaucoma filtering blebs. Am J Ophthalmol 2007 Jun;143(6):1052-1054.
  72. Sethi P, Patel RN, Goldhardt R, Ayyala RS. Conjunctival advancement with subconjunctival amniotic membrane draping technique for leaking cystic blebs. J Glaucoma 2016 Feb;25(2):188-192.
  73. Kitagawa K, Yanagisawa S, Watanabe K, Yunoki T, Hayashi A, Okabe M, Nikaido T. A hyperdry amniotic membrane patch using a tissue adhesive for corneal perforations and bleb leaks. Am J Ophthalmol 2009 Sep;148(3):383-389.
  74. Nagai-Kusuhara A, Nakamura M, Fujioka M, Negi A. Longterm results of amniotic membrane transplantation-assisted bleb revision for leaking blebs. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2008 Apr;246(4):567-571.
  75. Rai P, Lauande-Pimentel R, Barton K. Amniotic membrane as an adjunct to donor sclera in the repair of exposed glaucoma drainage devices. Am J Ophthalmol 2005 Dec;140(6): 1148-1152.
  76. Ainsworth G, Rotchford A, Dua HS, King AJ. A novel use of amniotic membrane in the management of tube exposure following glaucoma tube shunt surgery. Br J Ophthalmol 2006 Apr;90(4):417-419.
  77. Papadaki TG, Siganos CS, Zacharopoulos IP, Panteleontidis V, Charissis SK. Human amniotic membrane transplantation for tube exposure after glaucoma drainage device implantation. J Glaucoma 2007 Jan;16(1):171-172.
  78. Mulder EJ, Leiblum DM, Visser GH. Fetal breathing movements in late diabetic pregnancy: relationship to fetal heart rate patterns and Braxton Hicks’ contractions. Early Hum Dev 1995 Nov;43(3):225-232.
  79. Schulte FJ, Michaelis R, Nolte R, Albert G, Parl U, Lasson U. Brain and behavioral maturation in newborn infants of diabetic mothers. I. Nerve conduction and EEG patterns. Neuropadiatrie 1969 Jan-Jul;1(1):24-35.
  80. Devoe LD, Youssef AA, Castillo RA, Croom CS. Fetal biophysical activities in third-trimester pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994 Aug;171(2):298-303.
  81. Dierker LJ Jr, Pillay S, Sorokin Y, Rosen MG. The change in fetal activity periods in diabetic and nondiabetic pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982 May;143(2):181-185.
  82. Doherty NN, Hepper PG. Habituation in fetuses of diabetic mothers. Early Hum Dev 2000 Aug;59(2):85-93.
  83. Kainer F, Prechtl HF, Engele H, Einspieler C. Assessment of the quality of general movements in fetuses and infants of women with type-1 diabetes mellitus. Early Hum Dev 1997 Nov;50(1):13-25.
  84. Mulder EJ, O'Brien MJ, Lems YL, Visser GH, Prechtl HF. Body and breathing movements in near-term fetuses and newborn infants of type-1 diabetic women. Early Hum Dev 1990 Nov;24(2):131-152.
  85. Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. I. Early growth patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):91-106.
  86. Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. II. Emergence of specific movement patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):107-115.
  87. Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Impact of early growth delay on subsequent fetal growth and functional development: a study on diabetic pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 1992 Dec;31(2):91-95.
  88. Mulder EJ, Visser GH, Bekedam DJ, Prechtl HF. Emergence of behavioral states in fetuses of type-1 diabetic women. Early Hum Dev 1987 Jul;15(4):231-251.
  89. Mulder EJ, Visser GH, Morssink LP, de Vries JI. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. III. First trimester quantity of fetal movement patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):117-133.
  90. Aberg A, Westbom L, Kallen B. Congenital malformations among infants whose mothers had gestational diabetes or preexisting diabetes. Early Hum Dev 2001 Mar;61(2):85-95.
  91. Deregnier RA, Nelson CA, Thomas KM, Wewerka S, Georgieff MK. Neurophysiologic evaluation of auditory recognition memory in healthy newborn infants and infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatr 2000 Dec;137(6):777-784.
  92. Nelson CA, Wewerka S, Thomas KM, Tribby-Walbridge S, deRegnier R, Georgieff M. Neurocognitive sequelae of infants of diabetic mothers. Behav Neurosci 2000 Oct;114(5):950-956.
  93. Reece EA, Homko CJ. Infant of the diabetic mother. Semin Perinatol 1994 Oct;18(5):459-469.
  94. Reece EA, Homko CJ. Why do diabetic women deliver malformed infants? Clin Obstet Gynecol 2000 Mar;43(1):32-45.
  95. Rizzo T, Metzger BE, Burns WJ, Burns K. Correlations between antepartum maternal metabolism and intelligence of offspring. N Engl J Med 1991 Sep;325(13):911-916.
  96. Rizzo TA, Metzger BE, Dooley SL, Cho NH. Early malnutrition and child neurobehavioral development: insights from the study of children of diabetic mothers. Child Dev 1997 Feb;68(1):26-38.
  97. Schwartz R, Teramo KA. Effects of diabetic pregnancy on the fetus and newborn. Semin Perinatol 2000 Apr;24(2):120-135.
  98. Vaarasmaki MS, Hartikainen A, Anttila M, Pramila S, Koivisto M. Factors predicting peri- and neonatal outcome in diabetic pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 2000 Jul;59(1):61-70.
  99. Robertson SS, Dierker LJ. Fetal cyclic motor activity in diabetic pregnancies: sensitivity to maternal blood glucose. Dev Psychobiol 2003 Jan;42(1):9-16.
  100. Accardo PJ, Blondis TA, Whitman BY. Disorders of attention and activity level in a referral population. Pediatrics 1990 Mar;85(3 Pt 2):426-431.
  101. Ornoy A, Uriel L, Tennenbaum A. Inattention, hyperactivity and speech delay at 2-4 years of age as a predictor for ADDADHD syndrome. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci 1993;30(3):155-163.
  102. Smyth TR. Impaired motor skill (clumsiness) in otherwise normal children: a review. Child Care Health Dev 1992 Sep-Oct;18(5):283-300.
  103. Petersen MB, Pedersen SA, Greisen G, Pedersen JF, Mølsted- Pedersen L. Early growth delay in diabetic pregnancy: relation to psychomotor development at age 4. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1988 Feb;296(6622):598-600.
  104. Sells CJ, Robinson NM, Brown Z, Knopp RH. Long-term developmental follow-up of infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatr 1994 Jul;125(1):S9-S17.
  105. Vladareanu R, Lebit D, Constantinescu S. Ultrasound assessment of fetal neurobehaviour in high risk pregnancies. DSJUOG 2012 Apr-Jun;6(2):132-147.
  106. Talic A, Kurjak A, Ahmed B, Stanojevic M, Predojevic M, Kadic AS, Di Renzo GC. The potential of 4D sonography in the assessment of fetal behavior in high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2011 Jul;24(7):948-954.
  107. Bekedam DJ, Visser GH, de Vries JJ, Prechtl HF. Motor behaviour in the growth retarded fetus. Early Hum Dev 1985 Nov;12(2):155-165.
  108. Cioni G, Prechtl HF. Preterm and early postterm motor behaviour in low-risk premature infants. Early Hum Dev 1990 Sep;23(3):159-191.
  109. Seme-Ciglenecki P. Predictive value of assessment of general movements for neurological development of highrisk preterm infants: comparative study. Croat Med J 2003 Dec;44(6):721-727.
  110. Abo-Yaqoub S, Kurjak A, Mohammed AB, Shadad A, Abdel-Maaboud M. The role of 4-D ultrasonography in prenatal assessment of fetal neurobehaviour and prediction of neurological outcome. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2012 Mar;25(3):231-236.
  111. Athanasiadis AP, Mikos T, Tambakoudis GP, Theodoridis TD, Papastergiou M, Assimakopoulos E, Tarlatzis BC. Neurodevelopmental fetal assessment using KANET scoring system in low and high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2013 Mar;26(4):363-368.
  112. Fauser BC, Tarlatzis BC, Rebar RW, Legro RS, Balen AH, Lobo R, Carmina E, Chang J, Yildiz BO, Laven JS, et al. Consensus on women's health aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): the Amsterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored 3rd PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Fertil Steril 2012 Jan;97(1):28-38.e25
  113. Sirmans SM, Pate KA. Epidemiology, diagnosis and management of polycystic ovary syndrome. Clin Epidemiol 2014; 6:1-13.
  114. Fauser BC, Diedrich K, Bouchard P, Domínguez F, Matzuk M, Franks S, Hamamah S, Simón C, Devroey P, Ezcurra D, et al. Contemporary genetic technologies and female reproduction. Human Reproduction Update 2011 Nov;17(6):829-847.
  115. Balen A, Conway G, Kaltsas G. Polycystic ovary syndrome: the spectrum of the disorder in 1741 patients. Hum Reprod 1995 Aug;10(8):2107-2111.
  116. Azziz R, Sanchez L, Knochenhauer ES, Moran C, Lazenby J, Stephens KC, Taylor K, Boots LR. Androgen excess in women: experience with over 1000 consecutive patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004 Feb;89(2):453-462.
  117. Wild S, Pierpoint T, McKeigue P, Jacobs H. Cardiovascular disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome at longterm follow-up: a retrospective cohort study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2000 May;52(5):595-600.
  118. Hollinrake E, Abreu A, Maifeld M, Van Voorhis BJ, Dokras A. Increased risk of depressive disorders in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2007 Jun;87(6): 1369-1376.
  119. Zawadski JK, Dunaif A. Diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome. In: Givens JHF, Merriman G, editors. The polycystic ovary syndrome. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Scientific; 1992. p. 377-384.
  120. Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2004 Jan;81(1):19-25.
  121. Azziz R, Carmina E, DeWailly D, Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Escobar-Morreale HF, Futterweit W, Janssen OE, Legro RS, Norman RJ, Taylor AE, et al. Position statement: criteria for defining polycystic ovary syndrome as a predominantly hyperandrogenic syndrome: an Androgen Excess Society guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006 Nov;91(11):4237-4245.
  122. Lujan ME, Jarrett BY, Brooks ED, Reines JK, Peppin AK, Muhn N, Haider E, Pierson RA, Chizen DR. Updated ultrasound criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome: reliable thresholds for elevated follicle population and ovarian volume. Hum Reprod 2013 May;28(5):1361-1368.
  123. Badawy A, Elnashar A. Treatment options for polycystic ovary syndrome. Int J Womens Health 2011 Feb;3:25-35.
  124. ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins—Gynecology. ACOG Practice Bulletin No 108: Polycystic ovary syndrome. Obstet Gynecol 2009 Oct;114(4):936-949.
  125. Thessaloniki ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group Consensus on infertility treatment related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2008 Mar;89(3): 505-522.
  126. Balen AH. Ovulation induction in the management of anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2013 Jul;373(1-2):77-82.
  127. Berridge DL, Winter TC. Saline infusion sonohysterography: technique, indications, and imaging findings. J Ultrasound Med 2004 Jan;23(1):97-112.
  128. Allison SJ, Horrow MM, Kim HY, Lev-Toaff AS. Salineinfused sonohysterography: tips for achieving greater success. Radiographics 2011 Nov-Dec;31(7):1991-2004.
  129. O'Neill MJ. Sonohysterography. Radiol Clin North Am 2003 Jul;41(4):781-797.
  130. Bonnamy L, Marret H, Perrotin F, Body G, Berger C, Lansac J. Sonohysterography: a prospective survey of results and complications in 81 patients. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2002 Apr;102(1):42-47.
  131. Lindheim SR, Adsuar N, Kushner DM, Pritts EA, Olive DL. Sonohysterography: a valuable tool in evaluating the female pelvis. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2003 Nov;58(11):770-784.
  132. Lindheim SR, Sprague C, Winter TC. Hysterosalpingography and sonohysterography: lessons in technique. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2006 Jan;186(1):24-29.
  133. Jeanty P, Besnard S, Arnold A, Turner C, Crum P. Air-contrast sonohysterography as a first step assessment of tubal patency. J Ultrasound Med 2000 Aug;19(8):519-527.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.