World Journal of Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 8 , ISSUE 2 ( March-April, 2017 ) > List of Articles

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Mandibular Canine Calcification as Skeletal Maturity Indicator

K Vijayalakshmi, G Suresh Sathiasekar

Citation Information : Vijayalakshmi K, Sathiasekar GS. Mandibular Canine Calcification as Skeletal Maturity Indicator. World J Dent 2017; 8 (2):119-128.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1424

Published Online: 01-04-2017

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2017; The Author(s).


Abstract

Objective

The purpose of the study was to verify the relationship between mandibular canine calcification and skeletal maturity, and mandibular canine calcification could be used as a first-level diagnostic tool to estimate the timing of the pubertal growth spurt.

Materials and methods

Data were obtained from hand—wrist radiographs and intraoral periapical radiographs of left mandibular canine. Totally, 221 boys and 191 girls, the age ranging from 7 to 15 years, were selected to depict varying stages of growth. Kappa and t test statistics were applied. Skeletal age was determined as described by Greulich and Pyle, and the maturational patterns of the indicators were evaluated using the 11-grade system of Fishman. The stages from E to H as described by Demirjian's stages of dental calcification were taken in this study instead of A to H.

Results

The epiphyseal widening for boys at 8.1 years and girls at 7.7 years, the ossification of the adductor sesamoid for boys at 12.2 years and for girls at 11.6 years, capping of epiphysis for boys at 11 years and for girls at 10 years, fusion of epiphysis in distal and middle phalanx in the third finger for boys at 13.8 years and for girls at 12.7 years, and fusion of epiphysis in the radius for boys at 14.4 years and for girls at 13 years were seen.

The relationship between the various stages of calcification of mandibular canine with skeletal age are as follows:

Boys: Stage E at 6.4, stage F at 8.9 years, stage G at 10.9, and stage H at 14 years

Girls: Stage E at 6.1, stage F at 8.2 years, stage G at 10.46, and stage H at 12.94 years.

The results showed stages E and F were coincident with the epiphyseal widening in the third finger proximal and middle phalanx and middle phalanx of the fifth finger. Stage G was coincident with the ossification of adductor sesamoid, capping of third finger middle phalanx, distal phalanx, and fifth finger middle phalanx, indicating its association with the accelerative phase of growth. Stage H was coincident with a fusion of proximal, middle, distal phalanx of the third finger, and fusion of radius, indicating its association with the decelerative phase of growth. Stage G was an ideal time for any orthodontic treatment, particularly functional appliances.

Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, a close association existed between mandibular canine calcification stages and skeletal maturity indicators.

How to cite this article

Vijayalakshmi K, Sathiasekar GS. Mandibular Canine Calcification as Skeletal Maturity Indicator. World J Dent 2017;8(2):119-128.


PDF Share
  1. Relationships between dental calcification stages and skeletal maturity indicators in Thai individuals. Angle Orthod 2002 Apr;72(2):155-166.
  2. A radiographic standard of reference for the growing hand and wrist. 1st ed. Chicago: Press of Case Western Reserve University; 1971.
  3. Assessment of skeletal maturity and prediction of adult height (TW2 Method). London: Academic Press; 1975.
  4. Assessing the skeletal maturity if the hand-wrist (Fels Method). 2nd ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas; 1988.
  5. Dental age assessment using Nolla's method and skeletal age assessment by hand wrist radiograph among Kashmiri children – a comparative study. Br Biomed Bull 2016 Feb;4(1):9-14.
  6. Dental and chronological ages as determinants of peak growth period and its relationship with dental calcification stages. Open Dent J 2016 Apr;10(1):99-108.
  7. A new system of dental age assessment. Hum Biol 1973 May;45(2):211-227.
  8. Correlation between dental maturation and cervical vertebral maturation. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010 Dec;110(6):777-783.
  9. Skeletal maturation evaluation using mandibular second molar calcification stages. Angle Orthod 2012 May;82(3):501-506.
  10. Relationship between dental age according to Demirjian and cervical vertebrae maturation in Polish children. Eur J Orthod 2011 Feb;33(1):75-83.
  11. Relationships between mandibular canine mineralization stages and skeletal maturation. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1993 Sep;104(3):262-268.
  12. Relationships between dental and skeletal maturity in Turkish subjects. Angle Orthod 2004 Oct;74(5):657-664.
  13. Correlation of calcification of permanent mandibular canine, mandibular premolars and permanent mandibular first and second molars with skeletal maturity in Indian population. J Forensic Dent Sci 2016 May-Aug;8(2):67-73.
  14. The reliability of the Greulich and Pyle atlas when applied to a modern Scottish population. J Forensic Sci 2013 Jan;58(1):114-119.
  15. Radiographic evaluation of skeletal maturation. A clinically oriented method based on hand-wrist films. Angle Orthod 1982 Apr;52(2):88-112.
  16. Pubertal growth spurt age in local population – a study. Pak Oral Dent J 2011 Jun;31(1):78-83.
  17. Ossification of the adductor sesamoid and the adolescent growth spurt. Angle Orthod 1972 Jul;42(3):236-244.
  18. Relationship of the ulnar sesamoid bone and maximum mandibular growth velocity. Angle Orthod 1973 Apr;43(2):162-170.
  19. Assessment of skeletal maturity using the permanent mandibular canine calcification stages. J Orthod Res 2014 Jan;2(1):11-16.
  20. Reliability of permanent mandibular canine calcification as an indicator of skeletal maturity in Karnataka population. World J Dent 2010 Apr-Jun;1(1):7-11.
  21. Comparative analysis of pubertal growth spurt predictors: Martins and Sakima method and Grave and Brown method. J Appl Oral Sci 2005 Mar;13(1):58-61.
  22. Kumar A, A new system for assessment of growth using mandibular canine calcification stages and its correlation with modified MP3 stages. J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2014 Jul;6(Suppl 1):S58-S63.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.