World Journal of Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 8 , ISSUE 1 ( January-February, 2017 ) > List of Articles


Exercise-induced Hypoalgesia Profiles for Pain Prediction in the Trigeminal System

Khalil Assiri

Citation Information : Assiri K. Exercise-induced Hypoalgesia Profiles for Pain Prediction in the Trigeminal System. World J Dent 2017; 8 (1):21-27.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1405

Published Online: 01-06-2013

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2017; The Author(s).



This study aimed to evaluate the predictivity of exerciseinduced hypoalgesia (EIH) profile on pain severity produced by nerve injury in an animal model.

Materials and methods

A total of 51 rats were divided according to the EIH model, which was evaluated by the percentage of withdrawal actions of 30 repetitive physical stimuli on the hind paw of the rat before and after 3 minutes of exercise on a treadmill, into high and low EIH. Left infraorbital nerve injury was then done on rats from high and low EIH groups. Pain assays as mechanical allodynia and mechanical hyperalgesia were evaluated in the ipsilateral and unaffected whisker pad before and 3, 10, and 17 days after the surgery.


Rats that were categorized as low EIH showed increased hypersensitivity and demonstrated significantly severe mechanical hyperalgesia in ipsilateral side 10 and 17 days after the surgery compared with the high EIH rats.


The authors concluded that the pinprick behavioral assay (mechanical hyperalgesia) was able to predict chronic pain development in the area of the trigeminal nerve distribution using EIH profile measured at the hind paw of the rat.

How to cite this article

Assiri K. Exercise-induced Hypoalgesia Profiles for Pain Prediction in the Trigeminal System. World J Dent 2017;8(1):21-27.

PDF Share
  1. Pain – mechanics and management. West J Med 1984 Sep;141(3):347-357.
  2. Pain management: classifying, understanding, and treating pain. Hospital Physician 2002 Jun:23-30.
  3. NeuPSIG guidelines on neuropathic pain assessment. Pain 2011 Jan;152(1):14-27.
  4. Chronic pain: cytokines, lymphocytes and chemokines. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets 2014;13(5):339-349.
  5. Neuropathic pain: pathophysiology and treatment, progress in pain research and management. Vol. 21. Seattle (WA): IASP Press; 2001. p. 85-106.
  6. A randomized controlled trial of deep water running: clinical effectiveness of aquatic exercise to treat fibromyalgia. Arthritis Rheum 2006 Feb 15;55(1):57-65.
  7. In vivo measurement of extracellular serotonin in the ventral hippocampus during treadmill running. Behav Pharmacol 1996 Jan;7(1):101-104.
  8. How to increase serotonin in the human brain without drugs. J Psychiatry Neurosci 2007 Nov;32(6):394-399.
  9. Exercise lowers pain threshold in chronic fatigue syndrome. Pain 2004 Jun;109(3):497-499.
  10. Fatiguing exercise attenuates pain-induced corticomotor excitability. Neurosci Lett 2009 Mar 13;452(2):209-213.
  11. Endocannabinoids and exercise. Br J Sports Med 2004 Oct;38(5):536-541.
  12. Segmental and plurisegmental modulation of pressure pain thresholds during static muscle contractions in healthy individuals. Eur J Pain 2003;7(3):251-258.
  13. Extended swimming exercise reduces inflammatory and peripheral neuropathic pain in rodents. J Pain 2007 Dec;8(12):989-997.
  14. Exercise training attenuates neuropathic pain and cytokine expression after chronic constriction injury of rat sciatic nerve. Anesth Analg 2012 Jun;114(6):1330-1337.
  15. Swim therapy reduces mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia induced by chronic constriction nerve injury in rats. Pain Med 2013 Apr;14(4):516-525.
  16. High-intensity swimming exercise reduces neuropathic pain in an animal model of complex regional pain syndrome type I: evidence for a role of the adenosinergic system. Neuroscience 2013 Mar 27;234:69-76.
  17. Regular physical activity prevents development of chronic pain and activation of central neurons. J Appl Physiol (1985) 2013 Mar 15;114(6):725-733.
  18. Experimentally induced pain perception is acutely reduced by aerobic exercise in people with chronic low back pain. J Rehabil Res Dev 2005 Mar-Apr;42(2):183-190.
  19. Exercise-induced hypoalgesia profile in rats predicts neuropathic pain intensity induced by sciatic nerve constriction injury. J Pain 2014 Nov;15(11):1179-1189.
  20. Characterization of heat-hyperalgesia in an experimental trigeminal neuropathy in rats. Exp Brain Res 1997 Aug;116(1):97-103.
  21. Chronic constriction injury of the infraorbital nerve in the rat using modified syringe needle. J Neurosci Methods 2008 Jul 15;172(1):43-47.
  22. Dysfunction of endogenous pain inhibition during exercise with painful muscles in patients with shoulder myalgia and fibromyalgia. Pain 2010 Oct;151(1):77-86.
  23. The painlessness of the long distance runner. Med J Aust 1979 Jun 2;1(11): 522-523.
  24. Dose response of isometric contractions on pain perception in healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2008 Nov;40(11):1880-1889.
  25. Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC) attenuate temporal summation of second pain in normal males but not in normal females or fibromyalgia patients. Pain 2003;101(1-2):167-174.
  26. Low-intensity exercise reverses chronic muscle pain in the rat in a naloxone-dependent manner. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005 Sep;86(9):1736-1740.
  27. Regular exercise reverses sensory hypersensitivity in a rat neuropathic pain model: role of endogenous opioids. Anesthesiology 2011 Apr;114(4):940-948.
  28. Integrated activity of cardiovascular and pain regulatory systems: role in adaptive behavioural responses. Prog Neurobiol 1993 May;40(5):631-644.
  29. Analgesia following exercise: a review. Sports Med 2000 Feb;29(2):85-98.
  30. Ottawa Panel evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for strengthening exercises in the management of fibromyalgia: part 2. Phys Ther 2008 Jul;88(7):873-886.
  31. Strength training alone, exercise therapy alone, and exercise therapy with passive manual mobilisation each reduce pain and disability in people with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review. J Physiother 2011;57(1):11-20.
  32. Randomized controlled trial of exercise for chronic whiplash-associated disorders. Pain 2007 Mar;128(1-2):59-68.
  33. Exercise therapy for chronic nonspecific low-back pain. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 2010 Apr;24(2):193-204.
  34. The effects of swimming in mice on pain perception and sleeping time in response to hypnotic drugs. Life Sci 1980 Jan 21;26(3):219-224.
  35. The correlation between swim-stress induced antinociception and [3H] leu-enkephalin binding to brain homogenates in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1981 Dec;15(6):853-857.
  36. Home cage wheel running is an objective and clinically relevant method to assess inflammatory pain in male and female rats. J Neurosci Methods 2016 Apr 1;263:115-122.
  37. Electrical stimulation of the gastrocnemius muscle in the spontaneously hypertensive rat increases the pain threshold: role of different serotonergic receptors. Acta Physiol Scand 1990 Feb;138(2):125-131.
  38. Alterations in endogenous pain modulation in endurance athletes: an experimental study using quantitative sensory testing and the cold-pressor task. Pain 2013 Jul;154(7):1022-1029.
  39. Are runners stoical? An examination of pain sensitivity in habitual runners and normally active controls. Pain 1994 Jul;58(1):109-116.
  40. Vibration sensitivity of human muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs. Muscle Nerve 2007 Jul;36(1):21-29.
  41. Representation of wrist joint kinematics by the ensemble of muscle spindles from synergistic muscles. J Neurophysiol 1998 May;79(5):2265-2276.
  42. Ankyrin G. A new ankyrin gene with neural-specific isoforms localized at the axonal initial segment and node of Ranvier. J Biol Chem 1995 Feb 3;270(5):2352-2359.
  43. Dependence of nodal sodium channel clustering on paranodal axoglial contact in the developing CNS. J Neurosci 1999 Sep 1;19(17):7516-7528.
  44. Expression of sodium channel SNS/PN3 and ankyrin(G) mRNAs in the trigeminal ganglion after inferior alveolar nerve injury in the rat. Exp Neurol 2000 Aug;164(2):384-395.
  45. Immunolocalization of SNS/PN3 and NaN/SNS2 sodium channels in human pain states. Pain. 2000 Mar;85(1-2):41-50.
  46. Ectopic discharge in injured nerves: comparison of trigeminal and somatic afferents. Brain Res 1992 May 1;579(1):148-151.
  47. The effects of axotomy on neurons and satellite glial cells in mouse trigeminal ganglion. Pain 2004 Jul;110(1-2):290-298.
  48. Peripheral nerve injury triggers noradrenergic sprouting within dorsal root ganglia. Nature 1993 Jun 10;363(6429):543-546.
  49. Sympathetic nerve sprouting fails to occur in the trigeminal ganglion after peripheral nerve injury in the rat. Pain 1999 Sep;82(3):283-288.
  50. No sympathetic nerve sprouting in rat trigeminal ganglion following painful and nonpainful infraorbital nerve neuropathy. Neurosci Lett 2001 Jan 19;297(3):151-154.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.