World Journal of Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 2 , ISSUE 4 ( October-December, 2011 ) > List of Articles

REVIEW ARTICLE

When the Unthinkable Happens: Universal Work Precautions and Postexposure Prophylaxis in HIV

Praveen Ramdurg, Sharanappa Kambale, Vijaylaxmi B Mendigeri, Mohammad Fayyaz

Citation Information : Ramdurg P, Kambale S, Mendigeri VB, Fayyaz M. When the Unthinkable Happens: Universal Work Precautions and Postexposure Prophylaxis in HIV. World J Dent 2011; 2 (4):332-337.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1108

Published Online: 01-12-2011

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2011; The Author(s).


Abstract

Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) with antiretrovirals is now widely used worldwide after either occupational contact (with blood or another blood-containing fluid), or nonoccupational contact (mainly sexual or injection-drug use). It is assumed to reduce the risk of HIV transmission by at least 80%, although its efficacy has not been completely proven. Several countries have issued guidelines to help the clinician in their decision to offer PEP and to improve its cost-effectiveness. This article reviews the different antiretroviral combinations used, their safety profile, the recommendations and indications of PEP.


PDF Share
  1. Workbook for designing, implementing, and evaluating a sharps injury prevention program 2004. http://www.cdc.gov/sharpssafety/wk_info.html.
  2. Prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in resource—poor countries. J Am Med Assoc 2000;283:1175-82.
  3. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission in dentistry. J Dent Res 2006;85(9):794-800.
  4. Case-control study of HIV seroconversion in healthcare workers after percutaneous exposure to HIV-infected blood—France, United Kingdom, and United States, January 1988-August 1994. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1995;44:929-33.
  5. The risk of occupational human immunodefienciency virus infection in healthcare workers. Italian multicenter study. The Italian study group on occupational risk of HIV infection. Arch Intern Med 1993;153:1451-58.
  6. Occupationally acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: National case surveillance data during 20 years of the HIV epidemic in the United States. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2003;24:86-96.
  7. Effectiveness of postinoculation (R)–9 (2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl) adherence treatment for prevention of persistent simian HIV infection depends critically on timing and duration of treatment. J Virol 1998;72:4265-73.
  8. AIDS therapy, occupational and nonoccupational exposure management. Philadelphia, Elsevier Science (2nd ed). 2003;327-46.
  9. Postexposure prophylaxis in HIV. Medicine Update 2008;18:752-63.
  10. MMWR 1988;37:377-82,387-88.
  11. Public health service guidelines for management of occupational exposures to HIV and recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis. MMWR 2005;54(RR9):1-17.
  12. Antiretroviral drug resistance in HIV infected source patients for occupational exposure to healthcare workers (Abst. P-S2-70). In Abstracts of 4th Decennial International Conference on nosocomial and healthcare associated infections. Atlanta, GA: CDC 2000;128.
  13. NASH Surveillance Group. Experience of healthcare workers taking antiretroviral agents as PEP for occupational exposure to HIV (abstract 489) In: Proceedings of 1999 National HIV Prevention Conference. Atlanta, GA 1999.
  14. Pre-exposure prophylaxis as a prevention strategy. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (C hic III) 2003;2(3):102-05.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.