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VOLUME 2 , ISSUE 4 ( October-December, 2011 ) > List of Articles


Nanostructure of Crystal Hydroxyapatite from Fluorosis: Affected Enamel

Abdillah Imron Nasution

Citation Information : Nasution AI. Nanostructure of Crystal Hydroxyapatite from Fluorosis: Affected Enamel. World J Dent 2011; 2 (4):321-325.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1106

Published Online: 01-12-2011

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2011; The Author(s).


Aims and objectives

To describe the change of surface structure, c-axis, a-axis and grain size of crystal hydroxyapatite on fluorosis enamel.

Materials and methods

This research was carried out the fluorosis and normal enamel specimen by using scanning electron microscopy/ energy disperse X-ray (SEM/EDX) to determine fluor concentration and the surfaces structure of fluorosis enamel, and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine change of c- and a-axis of hydroxyapatite of fluorosis enamel.


Fluor concentration were higher in fluorosis enamel and the surface increasingly roughness and porous. SEM/EDX also confirmed gaps areas between enamel rods and visible aprismatic zone in some regions. The axis on fluorosis enamel was a-axis = 9.3786 Å and c-axis = 6.8836 Å. The a-axis on normal enamel was = 9.4148 Å and c-axis = 6.8791 Å. Grain size of fluorosis enamel was 19.59 nm and normal enamel was 20.30 nm.


Fluor as most electronegative element changes the c-axis, a-axis, and grain size of crystal hydroxyapatite and generates the internal atomic bonding which influences the stability of enamel strength.

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