World Journal of Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 2 , ISSUE 4 ( October-December, 2011 ) > List of Articles


Periodontal Status of Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis

Shyam Padmanabhan, CD Dwarakanath, Rashmi Paramashivaiah

Citation Information : Padmanabhan S, Dwarakanath C, Paramashivaiah R. Periodontal Status of Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis. World J Dent 2011; 2 (4):297-301.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1101

Published Online: 01-12-2011

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2011; The Author(s).



Osteoporosis a common metabolic disorder in postmenopausal women, with characteristic loss of bone mass, is associated with periodontitis and tooth loss according to the vast accumulating evidence. This association needs further perusal which was addressed in the following study.

Materials and methods

The study subjects were postmenopausal women (No:104) in the age group of 35 to 60 years. Diagnosis of osteoporosis was by standard tests like clinical, radiographic tests and or bone densitometry. Case history of subjects (i.e. dental, personal, medical and menopausal) was elicited verbally and periodontal examination was carried out. Estrogen (17-β estradiol) and calcium assays were measured in 20 of these patients.


All subjects completed their periodontal and radiographic examination. Indices to measure local factors were accompanied by increase in clinical parameters for periodontitis. Alveolar bone loss visible radiographically correlated with clinical indices and clinical attachment loss. Hormonal assays, i.e. serum 17-β. Estradiol and calcium were found to be below normal for examined cases. Majority of patients had periodontitis, half being localized and the remaining generalized.


Mandibular cortex showed osteoporosis in most of the cases. Tooth loss was not an apparent finding. Osteoporosis did not show an association with periodontitis as much as the local environment. Thus, it could be concluded that osteoporosis may not be an important risk factor for periodontitis and oral bone loss.

PDF Share
  2. Direct clinical and welfare costs of osteoporotic fractures in elderly men and women. Osteoporos Int 1995;5:427.
  3. 2004.
  4. Action plan osteoporosis: Consensus statement of an expert group. New Delhi 2003.
  5. The oral hygiene index: Development and uses. American Journal of Public Health 1960;7:53-63.
  6. Oral health of United States adults. NIDR publication no (NIH) 1987;87-2868. Bethesda, MD, US, Public Health Service, US Department of Health and Human Services.
  7. Periodontal disease in pregnancy. Acta Odontol Scand 1963;21:532-51.
  8. Pantomography in assessment of the the osteoporosis risk group. Scand J Dent Res 1994;102:68-72.
  9. Studies of residual ridge resorption (Part I). Use of panoramic radiographs for the evaluation and classification of mandibular resorption. J Prosthet Dent 1974;32:7-12.
  10. Fundamentals of Biostatistics (5th ed), Duxbury 2000.
  11. Statistics for mental health care research. NIMHANS publication, India 2002.
  12. The relation between periodontitis and systemic bone mass in women between 46 and 55 years of age. J Clin Periodontol 1992;19:492-96.
  13. Attachment loss with postmenopausal age and smoking. J Periodont Res 1997;32: 619-25.
  14. The relationship between bone mineral density and periodontitis in postmenopausal women. J Periodontol 2000;71:1492-98.
  15. Assessment of periodontal conditions and systemic disease in older subjects I. Focus on osteoporosis. J Clin Periodontol 2002;29:796-802.
  16. Calcium and the risk for periodontal disease. J Periodontol 2000;7:1057-66.
  17. The pattern of alveolar crest change in healthy postmenopausal women after 3 years of hormone/estrogen replacement therapy. J Periodontol 2002;73:1279-84.
  18. Influence of estrogen and osteopenia/ osteoporosis on clinical periodontitis in postmenopausal women. J Periodontol 1999;70:823-28.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.