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VOLUME 2 , ISSUE 3 ( July-September, 2011 ) > List of Articles


Cephalometric Norms for Indian Adults using Digital Posteroanterior Analysis

David Marianayagam, Ashima Vallathan

Citation Information : Marianayagam D, Vallathan A. Cephalometric Norms for Indian Adults using Digital Posteroanterior Analysis. World J Dent 2011; 2 (3):199-205.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1083

Published Online: 01-09-2011

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2011; The Author(s).



Facial and radiographic records in orthodontics are based on the profile. Aim of this study is to establish norms from digital posteroanterior (PA) cephalograms for Indian adults.

Materials and methods

The subjects included 45 Indian men and 55 Indian women, mean age 25 to 30 years. Subjects had ideal occlusion and a well-balanced face. About 12 linear measurements were determined using digital radiograph.


There was statistically significant difference between male and female samples. Comparison between the Indian men and women indicated larger measurements for men.


According to these results new PA clinical norms are presented to Indian orthodontists for diagnosis and planning.


ANS—Anterior nasal spine, A3-B3—Upper and lower canine right side, 3A-3B—Upper and lower canine left side Me—Menton.

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