World Journal of Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 15 , ISSUE 5 ( May, 2024 ) > List of Articles


Immunohistochemical Expression of β-catenin in Different Grades of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Rezhat Abbas, Suheel H Latoo, Mohammad S Dar

Keywords : β-catenin, Immunohistochemistry, Oral squamous cell carcinoma, Tumor markers, Wnt pathway

Citation Information : Abbas R, Latoo SH, Dar MS. Immunohistochemical Expression of β-catenin in Different Grades of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. World J Dent 2024; 15 (5):401-405.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2433

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 28-06-2024

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2024; The Author(s).


Aim: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common oral malignancy, accounting for up to 80–90% of all oral malignancies. This occurs as a result of the multistep accumulation of heterogeneous genetic changes. β-catenin binds with E-cadherin to form a cell adhesion complex and acts as a tumor suppressor by restricting the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. When β-catenin mutates or loses contact with E-cadherin, it translocates to the nucleus and upregulates transcription factors (TCFs). We analyzed and compared β-catenin expression in various phases of OSCC. Materials and methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 60 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks (20 well-differentiated OSCC, 20 moderately differentiated OSCC, and 20 poorly differentiated OSCC). Diagnosis was made using hematoxylin and eosin, and oral mucosa was used as a control. Results: Statistically substantial downregulation of β-catenin was seen with increasing OSCC grades. As the disease progressed, β-catenin moved from the membrane to the cytoplasm. Nuclear positivity was found in poorly differentiated squamous cell cancer. Nuclear migration activates TCFs, which promote cell proliferation. Conclusion: The study revealed a good prognostic role of both β-catenin in OSCC. Clinical significance: The marker can be used for prognostic as well as therapeutic purposes.

PDF Share
  1. Pindborg J, Reichart P, Smith C, et al. Histological Typing of Cancer and Precancer of the Oral Mucosa WHO International Histological Classification of Tumors, 2nd edition. Springer; 1997.
  2. Borse V, Konwar AN, Buragohain P. Oral cancer diagnosis and perspectives in India. Sens Int 2020;1:100046. DOI: 10.1016/j.sintl.2020.100046
  3. Pires FR, Ramos AB, Oliveira JB, et al. Oral squamous cell carcinoma: clinicopathological features from 346 cases from a single oral pathology service during an 8-year period. J Appl Oral Sci 2013;21(5):460–467. DOI: 10.1590/1679-775720130317
  4. Rajguru JP, Mouneshkumar CD, Radhakrishnan IC, et al. Tumor markers in oral cancer: a review. J Family Med Prim Care 2020;9(2):492–496. DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_1036_19
  5. Prakash S, Swaminathan U. β catenin in health: a review. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2015;19(2):230–238. DOI: 10.4103/0973-029X.164537
  6. Akhter M, Hossain S, Rahman QB, et al. A study on histological grading of oral squamous cell carcinoma and its co-relationship with regional metastasis. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2011;15(2):168–176. DOI: 10.4103/0973-029X.84485
  7. Kaszak I, Witkowska-Piłaszewicz O, Niewiadomska Z, et al. Role of cadherins in cancer-a review. Int J Mol Sci 2020;21(20):7624. DOI: 10.3390/ijms21207624
  8. Nelson WJ, Dickinson DJ, Weis WI. Roles of cadherins and catenins in cell-cell adhesion and epithelial cell polarity. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci 2013;116:3–23. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-394311-8.00001-7
  9. Bagutti C, Speight PM, Watt FM. Comparison of integrin, cadherin, and catenin expression in squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity. J Pathol 1998;186(1):8–16. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9896(199809)186:1<8::AID-PATH156>3.0.CO;2-H
  10. Gasparoni A, Chaves A, Fonzi L, et al. Subcellular localization of beta catenin in malignant cell lines and squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity. J Oral Pathol Med 2002;31(7):385–394. DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0714.2002.00108.x
  11. Bankfalvi A, Krassort M, Végh A, et al. Deranged expression of the E-cadherin/β-catenin complex and the epidermal growth factor receptor in the clinical evolution and progression of oral squamous cell carcinomas. J Oral Pathol Med 2002;31(8):450–457. DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0714.2002.00147.x
  12. Tanaka N, Odajima T, Ogi K, et al. Expression of Ecadherin, α-catenin, and β-catenin in the process of lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Br J Cancer 2003;89(3):557–563. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6601124
  13. Iwai S, Katagiri W, Kong C, et al. Mutations of the APC, beta-catenin, and axin 1 genes and cytoplasmic accumulation of beta-catenin in oral squamous cell carcinoma. J Can Res Clin Oncol 2005;131(12):773–782. DOI: 10.1007/s00432-005-0027-y
  14. Rosado P, Lequerica-Fernández P, Fernández S, et al. E-cadherin and β-catenin expression in well-differentiated and moderately-differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma: relations with clinical variables. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2013;51(2):149–156. DOI: 10.1016/j.bjoms.2012.03.018
  15. Mahomed F, Altini M, Meer S. Altered E-cadherin/β-catenin expression in oral squamous carcinoma with and without nodal metastasis. Oral Dis 2007;13(4):386–392. DOI: 10.1111/j.1601-0825.2006.01295.x
  16. Wang L, Liu T, Wang Y, et al. Altered expression of desmocollin 3, desmoglein 3, and beta-catenin in oral squamous cell carcinoma: correlation with lymph node metastasis and cell proliferation. Virchows Arch 2007;451(5):959–966. DOI: 10.1007/s00428-007-0485-5
  17. Cai ZG, Shi XJ, Gao Y, et al. β–catenin expression pattern in primary oral squamous cell carcinoma. Chin Med J 2008;121(19):1866–1870. DOI: 10.1097/00029330-200810010-00003
  18. Liu LK, Jiang XY, Zhou XX, et al. Upregulation of vimentin and aberrant expression of E-cadherin/β-catenin complex in oral squamous cell carcinomas: correlation with the clinicopathological features and patient outcome. Mod Pathol 2010;23(2):213–224. DOI: 10.1038/modpathol.2009.160
  19. Chaw SY, Majeed AA, Dalley AJ, et al. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) biomarkers–E–cadherin, beta-catenin, APC and vimentin–in oral squamous cell carcinogenesis and transformation. Oral Oncol 2012;48(10):997–1006. DOI: 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2012.05.011
  20. Zaid KW. Immunohistochemical assessment of E-cadherin and β-catenin in the histological differentiations of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Asian Pacific Org Can Prevent 2014;15(20):8847–8853. DOI: 10.7314/apjcp.2014.15.20.8847
  21. Kumar V, Panda A, Dash KC, et al. Immunohistochemical expression of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition proteins E-cadherin and β-catenin in grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma. J Pharm Bioall Sci 2021;13(Suppl 1):S555–S560. DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_562_20
  22. Kudo Y, Kitajima S, Ogawa I, et al. Invasion and metastasis of oral cancer cells require methylation of E-cadherin and/or degradation of membranous beta-catenin. Clin Cancer Res 2004;10(16):5455–5463. DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-04-0372
  23. Balasundaram P, Singh MK, Dinda AK, et al. Study of β-catenin, E-cadherin and vimentin in oral squamous cell carcinoma with and without lymph node metastases. Diagn Pathol 2014;9:145. DOI: 10.1186/1746-1596-9-145
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.