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VOLUME 15 , ISSUE 4 ( April, 2024 ) > List of Articles


Comparative Efficacy of Different Remineralizing Agents and Iontophoresis-enhanced Remineralization on Surface Microhardness: An In Vitro Study

Anshu Gupta, Navneet Kukreja, Anamika Thakur, Sunpreet Kaur, Swati Chhabra, Urvashi Sukhija

Keywords : Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate, Grape seed extract, Iontophoresis, NovaMin, Vicker's hardness

Citation Information : Gupta A, Kukreja N, Thakur A, Kaur S, Chhabra S, Sukhija U. Comparative Efficacy of Different Remineralizing Agents and Iontophoresis-enhanced Remineralization on Surface Microhardness: An In Vitro Study. World J Dent 2024; 15 (4):331-335.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2412

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 17-05-2024

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2024; The Author(s).


Aim: To compare the efficacy of different remineralizing agents and to evaluate the beneficial role of iontophoresis along with remineralizing agents. Materials and methods: A total of 120 specimens were divided into four groups—control group (n = 15), demineralized group (n = 15), remineralized group (n = 45), and remineralized + iontophoresis group (n = 45). The remineralized group was further divided into subgroup A = casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) (n = 15), subgroup B = 8% grape seed extract (GSE) (n = 15), and subgroup C = NovaMin (n = 15). The remineralized + iontophoresis group was also divided into three subgroups—subgroup A1 = CPP-ACP + iontophoresis (n = 15), subgroup B1 = GSE + iontophoresis (n = 15), and subgroup C1 = NovaMin + iontophoresis (n = 15). Vickers microhardness test was used to measure the changes in the hardness of enamel, which occurred in three phases (i.e., control, after demineralization, and after treatment). Data was recorded and statistically analyzed. Results: The mean microhardness for the control group was highest (359.72 kg/mm2 ± 15.3), while the demineralized group had the lowest value (294.2 kg/mm2 ± 16.3), which was statistically significant. Among the remineralizing agents, results were nonsignificant; however, CPP-ACP (330.4 ± 11.3 kg/mm2) had shown the highest mean microhardness values. On intragroup comparison, data was statistically significant for each group, with an increase in microhardness values in the remineralized + iontophoresis group compared to using remineralizing agent alone. Conclusion: Mean microhardness values in descending order—control group > remineralized + iontophoresis group > remineralized group > demineralized group. CPP-ACP application, along with iontophoresis, had superior remineralizing efficiency compared to other groups. Clinical significance: A pivotal goal of modern dentistry is to manage the noncavitated lesions noninvasively through the remineralization process in order to prevent disease progression and to improve esthetics, strength, and function. Iontophoresis has been shown to effectively accelerate the remineralization speed by driving the remineralizing agents deep into the subsurface enamel lesion in less time, leading to optimal enamel surface hardness.

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