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VOLUME 15 , ISSUE 3 ( March, 2024 ) > List of Articles


Effect of Probiotic Yogurt on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Count in Patients Undergoing Fixed Orthodontic Treatment: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Harneet Kaur, Neelam Singh, Anuradha Sharma, Shubham Datta, Abhishek Mehta

Keywords : Orthodontic treatment, Probiotic, Saliva, Streptococcus mutans, Yogurt

Citation Information : Kaur H, Singh N, Sharma A, Datta S, Mehta A. Effect of Probiotic Yogurt on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Count in Patients Undergoing Fixed Orthodontic Treatment: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. World J Dent 2024; 15 (3):262-269.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2403

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 20-04-2024

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2024; The Author(s).


Aim: To study the effect of probiotic yogurt on the levels of salivary Streptococcus mutans (MS) counts in fixed orthodontic patients. Materials and methods: A thorough electronic search of seven electronic databases, unpublished gray literature, and a hand search of the relevant studies’ reference lists was performed from 1st January 1990 to 31st December 2022 and further updated till 15th January 2023. Studies assessing the effect of probiotic yogurt on the level of salivary MS in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment from the year 2000 to 2023 were included. The Cochrane risk of bias 2 (RoB 2) assessment tool was used to assess the quality of included studies and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) to determine the overall certainty of evidence. Results: The primary outcome measure taken for the review was a reduction in MS levels in the salivary samples. Five out of six (83.33%) studies reported a decrease in MS levels after probiotic yogurt consumption, out of which three studies (95 subjects) were included in a meta-analysis using RevMan 5.4. Additional outcomes, such as Lactobacillus (LB) counts, were also assessed quantitatively in two studies out of six studies. The forest plot with random effects model showed a significant decrease in MS levels with a risk ratio of 0.57 [confidence interval (CI), 0.34–0.96] but no significant effect in LB counts with a risk ratio of 2.23 (CI, 0.52–9.63). Conclusion: Consumption of probiotic yogurt reduces the colonization of salivary MS in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Although once daily consumption of probiotic yogurt may be recommended as a dietary supplement in postbonding home care instructions, the risk–benefit ratio of long-term consumption of probiotics is yet to be ascertained. Clinical significance: With the benefits of reducing salivary MS counts, probiotic yogurt may be taken as an alternative strategy for the prevention of enamel demineralization and white spot lesions (WSLs) iatrogenic to fixed orthodontic treatment.

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