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VOLUME 15 , ISSUE 3 ( March, 2024 ) > List of Articles


Optimization of Nanohydroxyapatite for Bone Tissue Engineering via Wet Chemical Precipitation Method

M Prem Blaisie Rajula, Vivek Narayanan, GD Venkatasubbu, Potluri L Ravishankar, Rekha Mani

Keywords : Annealing, Biocompatibility, Biomaterials, Characterization, Hydroxyapatite, Nanoparticles

Citation Information : Rajula MP, Narayanan V, Venkatasubbu G, Ravishankar PL, Mani R. Optimization of Nanohydroxyapatite for Bone Tissue Engineering via Wet Chemical Precipitation Method. World J Dent 2024; 15 (3):228-234.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2397

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 20-04-2024

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2024; The Author(s).


Aim: This study aims to investigate the impact of annealing temperature on the physicochemical properties of chemically precipitated nanohydroxyapatite (nHA). Understanding how annealing parameters influence the crystallinity, morphology, and surface chemistry of HA nanoparticles is crucial for optimizing their performance and functionality in various biomedical applications. Materials and methods: Nanohydroxyapatite were synthesized using a wet chemical coprecipitation method with high-purity reagents. This involved slowly adding an aqueous phosphoric acid (H3PO4) suspension to a stirred aqueous calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] suspension at room temperature. The resulting precipitate (as-prepared nHA) was then washed and dried in an oven. Subsequently, the nHA was divided into separate groups and annealed at different temperatures (200, 400, and 600°C) for 3 hours in a furnace with subsequent cooling. The samples, including as-prepared and those annealed at 200, 400, and 600°C, underwent comprehensive characterization using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis (EDAX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR). Results: The HRTEM analysis revealed rod-shaped nHA crystals with agglomeration, and annealing led to increased particle proximity and rounding of crystal tips. EDAX confirmed the stoichiometric composition of calcium (Ca), phophorus (P), and oxygen (O) without impurities. XRD analysis showed distinct peaks for as-prepared HA and enhanced crystallinity in annealed samples. FTIR identified characteristic vibrational modes, including phosphate (PO43−) and carbonate ions (CO32−), indicating high-purity HA. Conclusion: This study successfully employed wet chemical coprecipitation to synthesize crystalline nHA nanoparticles with rod-like morphologies. Annealing temperature significantly impacted their morphology, crystallinity, and functional groups, as observed through various characterization techniques. These observations highlight the potential of annealing for tailoring nHA properties, paving the way for further exploration in this field. Clinical significance: The need for improved bone regeneration solutions remains a major challenge in both orthopedics and dentistry. The development of nHA suitable for bone regeneration addresses a critical need in enhancing the effectiveness of bone grafts. By achieving precise control over the nanoparticles’ crystal structure and chemical composition, this approach holds the potential to meet specific clinical requirements. Moreover, the cost-effectiveness of tailoring nHA holds significant translational value, paving the way for future advancements in biofunctionalization and the development of efficient bone repair solutions.

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