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VOLUME 15 , ISSUE 2 ( February, 2024 ) > List of Articles


Coronavirus Disease 2019, Mucormycosis, and Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive Patient: A Rare Case Report and Review of Literature

Dinraj Kulkarni, Dhriti Garde, Sachin Sarode, Aliya Khan, Janardhan Garde, Apurva Naik

Keywords : Case report, Coinfection, Human immunodeficiency virus, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, Mucormycosis, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

Citation Information : Kulkarni D, Garde D, Sarode S, Khan A, Garde J, Naik A. Coronavirus Disease 2019, Mucormycosis, and Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive Patient: A Rare Case Report and Review of Literature. World J Dent 2024; 15 (2):174-180.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2381

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 02-04-2024

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2024; The Author(s).


Aim and objective: This case report represents an extremely rare event of coinfection associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Mucormycosis, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. Background: This case report suggests that the patient suffered from quadruple infections like HIV, MTB, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and mucormycosis. Case description: A 41-year-old patient with a known history of HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was hospitalized with an 8 days history of fever, tiredness, sore throat, anosmia, myalgia, headache, shortness of breath, and cough with hemoptoic sputum. To confirm the diagnosis, the patient underwent laboratory and diagnostic tests in the form of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with a high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) score of 16/25, D-dimer and C-reactive protein (CRP) for COVID-19, Monteux test, and gene expert test for MTB, complete blood count showing leukocytosis and monocytosis, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) found to be 41, cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) count was 340 cells mm3, and HIV-1 RNA level was 9000 copies/mL to confirm HIV positivity. After 10 days of admission, the patient started with dull, aching pain in the upper right posterior region of the oral cavity, which worsened in due course due to the presentation of numbness in the malar region area and the mobility of the teeth. Diagnostic tests in the form of CT of paranasal sinuses (PNS), CT brain, and orbit were performed, suggestive of suspected invasive fungal infection. To confirm the diagnosis, a biopsy was taken and sent for histopathological diagnosis, and the report suggested that it was mucormycosis. Conclusion and clinical significance: Despite quadruple coinfections, the patient survived and recovered from complications. Further diagnosis and investigations for mucormycosis, MTB, and HIV/AIDS should be carried out for all the patients admitted to the COVID-19 ward due to their similar and nonspecific clinical manifestations.

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