World Journal of Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 14 , ISSUE 3 ( March, 2023 ) > List of Articles


Evaluation of Clove and Ginger-mediated Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles-based Dental Varnish against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus Species: An In Vitro Study

Jerry Joe Chokkattu, Ditty J Mary, Rajeshkumar Shanmugam, Singamsetty Neeharika

Keywords : Antimicrobial activity, Clove, Dental varnish, Ginger, Titanium oxide nanoparticle

Citation Information : Chokkattu JJ, Mary DJ, Shanmugam R, Neeharika S. Evaluation of Clove and Ginger-mediated Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles-based Dental Varnish against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus Species: An In Vitro Study. World J Dent 2023; 14 (3):233-237.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2185

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 05-05-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2023; The Author(s).


Aim: To study the mechanism of action of clove and ginger-mediated titanium oxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs)-based dental varnish against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Lactobacillus species. Materials and methods: Plant extract was prepared from ginger and clove, which was purchased locally and processed in a mixer grinder to create a fine powder. A total of 100 mL of distilled water was used to dissolve 0.5 gm of each of the powders, followed by cooking on a hotplate for 10 minutes at 60°C until it bubbled. The extract was collected, filtered, and stored. Dental varnish is prepared using a titration of 6.26 mm of titanium dioxide powder in 60 mL of distilled water was prepared followed by the addition of 40 mL of plant extract into an orbital shaker. Varied concentrations of dental varnish (25, 50, 100 μL) were introduced into culture well plates consisting of S. mutans and Lactobacillus followed by incubation. Antibacterial properties were analyzed through the recording of zones of inhibition, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bacterial concentration. Results: The results have demonstrated that when concentration rises, optical density values fall, demonstrating a bactericidal action. The results show a great difference between the values of optical density of the test samples at various concentrations in the order of 25, 50, and 100 μL being the highest when compared with control and antibiotic groups against Streptococcus and Lactobacillus. The results have proved that the greenly generated dental varnish has demonstrated good antibacterial and antibiofilm properties. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that a dental varnish formulation based on TiO2 NPs mediated by clove and ginger has proved to have an effective antibacterial action and should be further evaluated through in vivo studies too. Clinical significance: Due to their effective antibacterial qualities, titanium dioxide nanoparticles have been used to create a dental varnish that works well when combined with natural compounds like ginger and clove. This varnish can be improved with further testing using in vivo simulations.

PDF Share
  1. Ghorbanpour M, Bhargava P, Varma A, et al. Biogenic nanoparticles and their use in agro-ecosystems. Springer Nature; 2020. 606 p.
  2. Venditti I. Nanostructured materials based on noble metals for advanced biological applications. Nanomaterials (Basel) 2019;9(11):1593. DOI: 10.3390/nano9111593
  3. Rai M, Duran N. Metal Nanoparticles in Microbiology. Springer Science & Business Media; 2011. 306 p.
  4. Emam HE, Ahmed HB. Carboxymethyl cellulose macromolecules as generator of anisotropic nanogold for catalytic performance. Int J Biol Macromol 2018;111:999–1009. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.01.111
  5. Iravani S, Shukla AK. Plant protein-based nanoparticles and their biomedical applications. Nanomaterials and Plant Potential 2019:177–191. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-05569-1_6
  6. Horikoshi S, Serpone N. Microwaves in Nanoparticle Synthesis: Fundamentals and Applications. John Wiley & Sons; 2013. 352 p.
  7. Kanchi S, Ahmed S. Green Metal Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization and their Applications. John Wiley & Sons; 2018. 716 p.
  8. Maddela NR, Chakraborty S, Prasad R. Nanotechnology for Advances in Medical Microbiology. Springer; 2022. 427 p.
  9. Aravind A, Mathai K, Anand S, et al. Antimicrobial effect of ginger, garlic, honey, and lemon extracts on Streptococcus mutans. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18(11):1004–1008. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2165
  10. Mohapatra S, Leelavathi L, I MA, et al. Assessment of antimicrobial efficacy of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized using clove and cinnamon formulation against oral pathogens - an in vitro study. J Evol Med Dent Sci 2020;9(29):2034–2039. DOI: 10.14260/jemds/2020/443
  11. Haider A, Ijaz M, Ali S, et al. Green synthesized phytochemically (zingiber officinale and allium sativum) reduced nickel oxide nanoparticles confirmed bactericidal and catalytic potential. Nanoscale Res Lett 2020;15(1):50. DOI: 10.1186/s11671-020-3283-5
  12. Poddar M, Lakshmi GBV, Sharma M, et al. Environmental friendly polyacrylonitrile nanofiber mats encapsulated and coated with green algae mediated titanium oxide nanoparticles for efficient oil spill adsorption. Mar Pollut Bull 2022;182:113971. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2022.113971
  13. Wall V, King SC, Kashanchi GN, et al. Understanding the effect of nanoparticle size on thermal conductivity in amorphous nanoporous materials made from colloidal building blocks. J Phys Chem C 2022;126:18029–18035. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.2c05444
  14. Hull MS, Bowman DM. Nanotechnology environmental health and safety—learning from the past, preparing for the future. Nano Environ Health Safety 2018:3–10. DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-12-813588-4.00001-4
  15. Calvo F. Nanoalloys: From Fundamentals to Emergent Applications. Elsevier; 2020. 524 p.
  16. Dhanraj G, Rajeshkumar S. Anticariogenic effect of selenium nanoparticles synthesized using brassica oleracea. J Nanomater 2021;11:1–9. DOI: 10.1155/2021/8115585
  17. Selvaraj A, George AM, Rajeshkumar S. Efficacy of zirconium oxide nanoparticles coated on stainless steel and nickel titanium wires in orthodontic treatment. Bioinformation 2021;17(8):760–766. DOI: 10.6026/97320630017760
  18. Rajeshkumar S, Santhoshkumar J, Jule LT, et al. Phytosynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles using king of bitter Andrographis paniculata and its embryonic toxicology evaluation and biomedical potential. Bioinorg Chem Appl 2021;2021:6267634. DOI: 10.1155/2021/6267634
  19. Rajeshkumar S, Vanaja M, Kalirajan A. Degradation of toxic dye using Phytomediated copper nanoparticles and its free-radical scavenging potential and antimicrobial activity against environmental pathogens. Bioinorg Chem Appl 2021;2021:1222908. DOI: 10.1155/2021/1222908
  20. Chaithanya M, Maheswari TN Uma, Shanmugam R. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of lycopene, raspberry, green tea herbal formulation mediated silver nanoparticle. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2021;33(4):397. DOI: 10.4103/jiaomr.jiaomr_98_21
  21. Subramanian AK, Prabhakar R, Vikram NR, et al. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of silymarin/hydroxyapatite/chitosan nanocomposites and its cytotoxic effect using brine shrimp lethality assay. J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2022;28(2):e71–e77. DOI: 10.47750/jptcp.2022.874
  22. Rajeshkumar S, Santhoshkumar J, Vanaja M, et al. Evaluation of Zebrafish toxicology and biomedical potential of Aeromonas hydrophila mediated copper sulfide nanoparticles. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2022;2022:7969825. DOI: 10.1155/2022/7969825
  23. Mi XJ, Choi HS, Perumalsamy H, et al. Biosynthesis and cytotoxic effect of silymarin-functionalized selenium nanoparticles induced autophagy mediated cellular apoptosis via downregulation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in gastric cancer. Phytomedicine 2022;99:154014. DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2022.154014
  24. Ganapathy D, Shanmugam R, Pitchiah S, et al. Potential applications of halloysite nanotubes as drug carriers: a review. J Nanomater 2022;2022:1–7. DOI: 10.1155/2022/1068536
  25. Nagalingam M, Rajeshkumar S, Balu SK, et al. Anticancer and antioxidant activity of Morinda citrifolia leaf mediated selenium nanoparticles. J Nanomater 2022;2022:1–7. DOI: 10.1155/2022/2155772
  26. Perumalsamy H, Shanmugam R, Kim JR, et al. Nanoemulsion and encapsulation strategy of hydrophobic oregano essential oil increased human prostate cancer cell death via apoptosis by attenuating lipid metabolism. Bioinorg Chem Appl 2022;2022:9569226. DOI: 10.1155/2022/9569226
  27. Ganapathy D, Shivalingam C, Shanmugam R, et al. Recent breakthrough of bismuth-based nanostructured materials for multimodal theranostic applications. J Nanomater 2022;2022:1–7. DOI: 10.1155/2022/4944320
  28. Gütgemann F, Müller A, Churin Y, et al. Proposal of a method for harmonized broth microdilution antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Avibacterium gallinarum. J Clin Microbiol 2022;60(8):e0041922. DOI: 10.1128/jcm.00419-22
  29. Kowalska-Krochmal B, Dudek-Wicher R. The minimum inhibitory concentration of antibiotics: methods, interpretation, clinical relevance. Pathogens 2021;10(2):165. DOI: 10.3390/pathogens10020165
  30. Senghoi W, Klangbud WK. Antioxidants, inhibits the growth of foodborne pathogens and reduces nitric oxide activity in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells of nipa palm vinegar. PeerJ 2021;9:e12151. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.12151
  31. Weng L, Wu L, Guo R, et al. Lactobacillus cell enveloped coated nanoparticles for antibiotic delivery against cariogenic biofilm and dental caries. J Nanobiotechnology 2022;20(1):356. DOI: 10.1186/s12951-022-01563-x
  32. Ahmed FY, Farghaly Aly U, Abd El-Baky RM, et al. Comparative study of antibacterial effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles alone and in combination with antibiotics on mdr pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Int J Nanomedicine 2020;15:3393–3404. DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S246310
  33. Yu Y, Kang L, Sun L, et al. Bimetallic Pt-Ni nanoparticles confined in porous titanium oxide cage for hydrogen generation from NaBH hydrolysis. Nanomaterials (Basel) 2022;12(15):2550. DOI: 10.3390/nano12152550
  34. Ramya G, Rajasekar A. Enhanced antibacterial effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles mediated grape seed extract on oral pathogens - streptococcus mutans and lactobacillus. J Evol Med Dent Sci 2021;10(22):1656–1661. DOI: 10.14260/jemds/2021/344
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.