World Journal of Dentistry

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VOLUME 14 , ISSUE 12 ( December, 2023 ) > List of Articles


Clinical Evaluation and Digital Photographic Analysis: A Modern Approach to Assess Gingival Depigmentation

Nidhi Shah, Jasuma Rai, Monali Shah, Manali Gupte

Keywords : Digital analysis, Diode laser, Hyperpigmentation, Scalpel technique, Visual analog scale

Citation Information : Shah N, Rai J, Shah M, Gupte M. Clinical Evaluation and Digital Photographic Analysis: A Modern Approach to Assess Gingival Depigmentation. World J Dent 2023; 14 (12):1084-1090.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2348

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 31-01-2024

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2023; The Author(s).


Aim: To assess scalpel and laser techniques of depigmentation by clinical parameters and digital photographic analysis. Materials and methods: In this split-mouth clinical study, 64 sites with gingival hyperpigmentation were selected. Group I was scalpel and group II was diode laser. Clinical parameters, that is, the Dummett oral pigmentation index (DOPI) and the Hedin melanin index (HMI) were recorded. Standardized digital photographs of pigmented areas were taken, and red, green, and blue (RGB) image statistics were done using Adobe Photoshop software. The patient's perception of pain was recorded on the visual analog scale (VAS) scale, and the repigmentation and time of the competition of the procedure were assessed. The timeline of the study was baseline, 3, and 6 months. Statistical analysis was done using the paired t-test and the student t-test. Results: Dummet oral pigmentation index (DOPI) and HMI showed highly statistically significant differences during the timelines, but no significant difference was between the groups. The digital analysis by RGB method showed statistically significant and clinically significant results in melanin reduction preoperatively and postoperatively. Comparative pain assessment and duration of the procedure were highly significant in laser compared to a scalpel. The repigmentation rate showed a high recurrence rate in the laser group. Conclusion: The RGB values suggest effectiveness in evaluating differences in hue on surgical techniques for hyperpigmentation of gingiva. The rate of repigmentation is less in the scalpel technique. Both surgical and diode lasers were efficient for depigmentation of the gingiva and did not result in any postoperative complications. Clinical significance: The scalpel and laser technique showed significant results so it can be used efficiently to restore the pink esthetic. Laser therapy in terms of pain perception and duration is better. The digital photographic analysis method (RGB values) and clinical evaluation (indices) can be used to assess the patient preoperatively and postoperatively.

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