World Journal of Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 14 , ISSUE 12 ( December, 2023 ) > List of Articles

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Effect of Brainwave Entrainment on Perception of Anxiety during Dental Treatment: A Pilot Study

Rekha Mani, Vivek Narayanan, Vijay Venkatesh, Prem B Rajula, Abinia Vaishnavi

Keywords : Alpha, Audiovisual stimulation, Delta, Dentistry, Rainwave entrainment, Theta

Citation Information : Mani R, Narayanan V, Venkatesh V, Rajula PB, Vaishnavi A. Effect of Brainwave Entrainment on Perception of Anxiety during Dental Treatment: A Pilot Study. World J Dent 2023; 14 (12):1032-1036.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2341

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 31-01-2024

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2023; The Author(s).


Abstract

Background: Anxiety impacts both physical and mental health with symptoms including nervousness, palpitations, sweating, and dizziness, thereby affecting cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, and nervous systems. Brainwave entrainment (BWE) is the capacity of the brain to synchronize its own frequencies with the rhythm of an externally applied stimulus. Patients undergoing dental treatment experience increased anxiety both preoperatively and intraoperatively. This, in turn, may lead to increased perception of pain as well as instability of vital signs throughout the procedure. There are numerous nonpharmacological adjuvants employed for management of dental anxiety; however, this study is an attempt to assess the effect of BWE on anxiety in patients undergoing root canal therapy. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of BWE on systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR) values both before and during root canal treatment in population experiencing moderate to severe anxiety assessed using Corah's Dental Anxiety Scale. Materials and methods: Forty participants were included in this pilot study and were divided into four groups (three entrainment groups and one control group). The three entrainment groups include alpha (10 Hz), theta (7 Hz), and delta (1 Hz) groups subjected to audiovisual entrainment in the corresponding frequencies. All participants were subjected to 10 minutes of preoperative entrainment except for the control group. The second entrainment session was applied, following administration of local anesthesia and rubber dam isolation, for 10 minutes following which the intratreatment vital sign values were recorded. In case of control group, no entrainment sessions were applied but simply the vital signs were recorded 10 minutes before and after initiation of treatment (preoperative and intraoperative, respectively). Results: Delta entrainment group exhibited significantly lower HR values both pre- and intraoperatively (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences with regard to SBP and DBP values. Conclusion: Brainwave entrainment (BWE) can be considered an effective nonpharmacological aid for management of anxiety in patients requiring dental treatment.


HTML PDF Share
  1. Chanpong B, Haas DA, Locker D. Need and demand for sedation or general anesthesia in dentistry: a national survey of the Canadian population. Anesth Prog 2005;52(1):3–11. DOI: 10.2344/0003-3006(2005)52[3:NADFSO]2.0.CO;2
  2. LeClaire AJ, Skidmore AE, Griffin JA Jr, et al. Endodontic fear survey. J Endod 1988;14(11):560–564. DOI: 10.1016/S0099-2399(88)80091-8
  3. Cooper CL, Watts J, Kelly M. Job satisfaction, mental health, and job stressors among general dental practitioners in the UK. Br Dent J. 1987;162(2):77–81. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.4806030
  4. Dionne RA, Gordon SM, McCullagh LM, et al. Assessing the need for anesthesia and sedation in the general population. J Am Dent Assoc 1998;129(2):167–173. DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.1998.0173
  5. Huh YK, Montagnese TA, Harding J, et al. Assessment of patients’ awareness and factors influencing patients’ demands for sedation in endodontics. J Endod 2015;41(2):182–189. DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2014.10.009
  6. Clinical Electroencephalography, 1st edition. Elsevier India Private Limited; 2008.
  7. Honores, Marcelo. (2016). What is Brainwave Entrainment and what is it for? February 2016.
  8. Timmermann DL, Lubar JF, Rasey HW, et al. Effects of 20-min audio-visual stimulation (AVS) at dominant alpha frequency and twice dominant alpha frequency on the cortical EEG. Int J Psychophysiol 1999;32(1):55–61. DOI: 10.1016/s0167-8760(98)00064-6
  9. Spaak E, de Lange FP, Jensen O. Local entrainment of α oscillations by visual stimuli causes cyclic modulation of perception. J Neurosci 2014;34(10):3536–3544. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4385-13.2014
  10. Locke HN, Brooks J, Arendsen LJ, et al. Acceptability and usability of smartphone-based brainwave entrainment technology used by individuals with chronic pain in a home setting. Br J Pain 2020;14(3):161–170. DOI: 10.1177/2049463720908798
  11. Manippa V, Palmisano A, Filardi M, et al. An update on the use of gamma (multi) sensory stimulation for Alzheimer's disease treatment. Front Aging Neurosci 2022;14:1095081. DOI: 10.3389/fnagi.2022.1095081
  12. Sahu PP, Tseng P. Gamma sensory entrainment for cognitive improvement in neurodegenerative diseases: opportunities and challenges ahead. Front Integr Neurosci 2023;17:1146687. DOI: 10.3389/fnint.2023.1146687
  13. Maddison R, Nazar H, Obara I, et al. The efficacy of sensory neural entrainment on acute and chronic pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Pain 2023;17(2):126–141. DOI: 10.1177/2049463722113947
  14. Dabiri R, Monazzam Esmaielpour MR, Salmani Nodoushan M, et al. The effect of auditory stimulation using delta binaural beat for a better sleep and post-sleep mood: a pilot study. Digit Health 2022;8:20552076221102243. DOI: 10.1177/20552076221102243
  15. Opartpunyasarn P, Vichitvejpaisal P, Oer-Areemitr N. The effect of binaural beat audio on anxiety in patients undergoing fiberoptic bronchoscopy: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Medicine (Baltimore) 2022;101(24):e29392. DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000029392
  16. Huang TL, Charyton C. A comprehensive review of the psychological effects of brainwave entrainment. Altern Ther Health Med 2008;14(5):38–50. PMID: 18780583.
  17. de Graaf TA, Gross J, Paterson G, et al. Alpha-band rhythms in visual task performance: phase-locking by rhythmic sensory stimulation. PloS one 2013;8(3):e60035. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060035
  18. Halbleib A, Gratkowski M, Schwab K, et al. Topographic analysis of engagement and disengagement of neural oscillators in photic driving: a combined electroencephalogram/magnetoencephalogram study. J Clin Neurophysiol 2012;29(1):33–41. DOI: 10.1097/WNP.0b013e318246ad6e
  19. Thut G, Miniussi C, Gross J. The functional importance of rhythmic activity in the brain. Curr Biol 2012;22(16):R658–R663. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2012.06.061
  20. Herrmann CS. Human EEG responses to 1-100 Hz flicker: resonance phenomena in visual cortex and their potential correlation to cognitive phenomena. Exp Brain Res 2001;137(3-4):346–353. DOI: 10.1007/s002210100682
  21. Ecsy K, Jones AK, Brown CA. Alpha-range visual and auditory stimulation reduces the perception of pain. Eur J Pain 2017;21(3):562–572. DOI: 10.1002/ejp.960
  22. Reyes-Gilabert E, Luque-Romero LG, Bejarano-Avila G, et al. Assessment of pre and postoperative anxiety in patients undergoing ambulatory oral surgery in primary care. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2017;22(6):e716–e722. DOI: 10.4317/medoral.21929
  23. Chaieb L, Wilpert EC, Hoppe C, et al. The impact of monaural beat stimulation on anxiety and cognition. Front Hum Neurosci 2017;11:251. DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2017.00251
  24. Sanchez DI, Collins T, Stone R. Effect of 10 and 20 Hz photic stimulation on stress and temperature of the fingers. In 2012 international symposium on computer applications and industrial electronics (ISCAIE) (pp. 142–146). IEEE. Retrieved 22nd October 2018.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.