Citation Information :
Lalit H, Subramanian AK, Sivashanmugam P. Preparation, Characterization, and Evaluation of Cytotoxic Activity of a Novel Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle-infiltrated Orthodontic Adhesive: An In Vitro Study. World J Dent 2023; 14 (10):882-887.
Aim: The aim of the present study is to prepare a novel 1% green-synthesized titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticle-infiltrated orthodontic adhesive and evaluate its cytotoxic activity against human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cell lines.
Materials and methods: About 1% (w/w) green-synthesized TiO2 nanoparticle-infiltrated adhesive was prepared. To prepare the adhesive, 0.04 gm of the preprepared TiO2 nanoparticles was combined with 4 mL of dichloromethane (DCM) in a beaker covered with aluminum foil to prevent exposure to light. To this, 4 gm of orthodontic adhesive (Enlight, ORMCO) was mixed and manually stirred continuously. The mix was then subjected to mechanical stirring at 500 rpm using an orbital shaker for 24 hours. The obtained adhesive infiltrated with TiO2 nanoparticles was characterized using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The cytotoxicity of the material was evaluated against HGF using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)—2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14.
Results: SEM analysis displayed uniform distribution of TiO2 nanoparticles in the adhesive matrix. The nanoparticle dimensions ranged from 25 to 75 nm. EDX analysis confirmed the presence of titanium and oxygen ions. FTIR evaluation also showed the presence of titanium functional group. On evaluation of human fibroblast cell viability, it was observed that the percentage of viable cells increased to 100% by day 14. TiO2-infiltrated adhesive showed decreased cytotoxic activity when compared to conventional adhesive but was statistically not significant (p > 0.05).
Conclusion: SEM/EDX and FTIR confirmed the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles in the prepared orthodontic adhesive. No significant cytotoxic effects were observed on days 3, 5, 7, and 14 after curing when evaluated against HGF using MTT assay.
Clinical significance: One challenge that patients undergoing orthodontic therapy face is the development of white spot lesions (WSL) due to demineralization of surrounding enamel. TiO2, in particular, has potent antibacterial efficiency. Hence, infiltration of TiO2 nanoparticle into orthodontic adhesive would help improve the antibacterial properties of the adhesive, thereby reducing the formation of WSLs.
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