Citation Information :
Albuquerque LA, Sangappa SB, Srinivasan A, Archer A, Rao R. Efficacy of Chemically and Biologically Synthesized Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Incorporated in Soft Denture Liner against Candida albicans: A Comparative In Vitro Study. World J Dent 2023; 14 (10):851-859.
Aim: The present study aimed to comparatively evaluate the efficacy of varying concentrations of chemically synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles (CSZnO-NPs) and biologically synthesized ZnO-NPs (BSZnO-NPs) incorporated separately in soft denture liners against Candida albicans (C. albicans).
Materials and methods: The sample size for this experimental comparative in vitro study was 120. ZnO-NPs were biologically synthesized from Azadirachta indica (A. indica) (neem) leaves and characterized by ultraviolet visible (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). CSZnO-NPs were procured from Sigma Aldrich. CSZnO-NPs and BSZnO-NPs were then incorporated separately into soft liner in concentrations of 0 (control), 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 wt% for the purpose of comparison. The disk diffusion method was used to evaluate antifungal activity and the zones of inhibition (ZOI) were measured. Data was compiled and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 20. Inferential statistics used were analysis of variance (ANOVA) and independent t-test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant.
Results: Characterized BSZnO-NPs subjected to SEM showed particles of <100 nm in size with spherical morphology, UV-vis spectroscopy showed the absorption peak at a wavelength of 220 nm, XRD showed a good crystalline structure formation, and FTIR showed the presence of functional groups. For antifungal evaluation, the mean ZOI were measured, and an ANOVA test was performed, which showed a significant difference (p < 0.0001) between the concentrations of CSZnO-NPs and BSZnO-NPs incorporated in soft liners, respectively. Least significant difference (LSD) post hoc analysis showed a significant difference (p < 0.001) between the various concentrations, with the most significant difference seen at 7 wt% of CSZnO-NPs and 9 wt% of BSZnO-NPs. On performing an independent t-test, it was inferred that 3, 5, 7, and 11 wt% incorporation of CSZnO-NPs showed significantly higher ZOI against C. albicans as compared to the respective concentrations of BSZnO-NPs. At 9 wt%, there was no significant difference between the two groups.
Conclusion: In conclusion, the optimal antifungal concentration of CSZnO-NPs and BSZnO-NPs is 7 and 9 wt%, respectively, when incorporated into the soft liner. Overall, CSZnO-NPs proved to be more efficacious than BSZnO-NPs against C. albicans.
Clinical significance: Incorporation of optimal concentrations of CSZnO-NPs or BSZnO-NPs into soft denture liner is efficacious in combating the incidence of denture stomatitis (DS). Valuing the advantages of green synthesis, BSZnO-NPs can also be recognized for their antifungal efficacy.
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