Aim: To evaluate the effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) on microbial alterations (Porphyromonas gingivalis and Filifactor alocis), in pregnant periodontitis study participants with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).
Materials and methods: The present study has been designed as a prospective and interventional trial. A total of 120 pregnant women were selected according to predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Group I included pregnant study participants with GDM and periodontitis, who underwent oral hygiene instructions (OHI) throughout the study. Group II had pregnant study participants with GDM and periodontitis, who underwent scaling and root planning (SRP), followed by OHI. Group III had pregnant study participants with periodontitis maintained on OHI, and group IV had pregnant study participants with periodontitis who underwent SRP, followed by OHI.
After the patients were categorized into respective groups, subgingival plaque samples were collected. All the patients were given OHI, and patients in groups II and IV underwent SRP. Clinical parameters were reevaluated 3 months after NSPT, before parturition. Subgingival plaque samples were also collected at the follow-up appointment. The study data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software V.22, IBM, for Windows.
Results: An improvement in the microbial load was observed in all patients. However, better improvement was observed in group II, which included patients with GDM and periodontitis, who were provided with NSPT and OHI.
Conclusion: Nonsurgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) in pregnant periodontitis study participants with and without GDM demonstrated a reduction in P. gingivalis and F. alocis loads. The results are in accordance with the hypothesis of the current study, suggesting a positive impact of NSPT on microbial load and its effect on periodontal status.
Clinical Significance: The detrimental effect of microorganisms on host periodontal tissues lead to periodontitis. After NSPT, there was a reduction in the microbiological load with an improvement in the clinical periodontal parameters, thereby improving the oral health of the study participants.
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