World Journal of Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 13 , ISSUE S1 ( Supplementary Issue 1, 2022 ) > List of Articles


Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effect of Ocimum sanctum L. Oral Gel against Anaerobic Oral Microbes: An In Vitro Study

Burra Anand Deepika, Jaiganesh Ramamurthy, Smiline Girija, Nadathur Duraisamy Jayakumar

Keywords : Anaerobic microorganisms, Antimicrobial, Chlorhexidine, Dental plaque, Tulsi extract

Citation Information :

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2140

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-10-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) gel against anaerobic oral microbes. Materials and methods: Subgingival plaque samples were collected from a patient diagnosed with periodontitis. The plaque sample was immediately transferred to an Eppendorf tube containing thioglycollate broth. The sample was incubated in anaerobic conditions at 37° for 24 hours. A total of 20 µL of the cultured broth was subcultured into the test O. sanctum L. (Tulsi gel) and control group gels [chlorhexidine (CHX) gel]. The subcultured gels were of five different concentrations (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 µL). The subcultured plaque samples were plated onto a Petri dish containing brain heart infusion (BHI) agar. The Petri dishes were incubated at 37° for 24 hours under anaerobic conditions. An anaerobic gas pack was placed in an anaerobic jar to create an anaerobic condition. After 24 hours, the number of colonies formed was observed and noted. Results: O. sanctum L. (Tulsi) gel demonstrated effective antimicrobial activity-against anaerobic oral microbes at 20 and 25%. A higher concentration of O. sanctum L. (Tulsi) gel is effective in demonstrating its potential use as an efficient and supplement for the quality level of treatment in periodontitis (periodontal condition). CHX gel showed no activity in comparison with the O. sanctum L. (Tulsi) gel. Conclusion: O. sanctum L. (Tulsi) plant extract illustrates antimicrobial efficacy against anaerobic oral microbes. O. sanctum L. (Tulsi) exhibited efficient antimicrobial activity against anaerobic oral microbes proving its potential use as an efficient and standard supplement in the treatment of periodontal conditions. Clinical significance: Periodontitis is an inflammation of a periodontal organ complex with various types of diseases which are linked with particular bacteria that occupy the subgingival portion. Extensive utilization of drugs developed side effects. It resulted in uncommon infections and also resulted in resistance. In various clinical situations, O. sanctum L. (Tulsi) is used as herbal medicine. Hence it was found to be an appropriate substitute to control the situations which are altering the oral cavity.

PDF Share
  1. Aas JA, Paster BJ, Stokes LN, et al. Defining the normal bacterial flora of the oral cavity. J Clin Microbiol 2005;43(11):5721–5732. DOI: 10.1128/JCM.43.11.5721-5732.2005
  2. Löe H, Theilade E, Jensen SB. Experimental gingivitis in man. J Periodontol 1965;36(3):177–187. DOI: 10.1902/jop.1965.36.3.177
  3. Allison DG. Community Structure and Co-operation in Biofilms. Cambridge University Press; 2000.
  4. Al-Hashimi I, Levine MJ. Characterization of in vivo salivary-derived enamel pellicle. Arc Oral Biol 1989;34(4):289–295. DOI: 10.1016/0003-9969(89)90070-8
  5. Li J, Helmerhorst EJ, Corley RB, et al. Characterization of the immunologic responses to human in vivo acquired enamel pellicle as a novel means to investigate its composition. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2003;18(3):183–191. DOI: 10.1034/j.1399-302x. 2003.00065.x
  6. Kopec LK, Vacca Smith AM, Wunder D, et al. Properties of Streptococcus sanguinis glucans formed under various conditions. Caries Res 2001;35(1):67–74. DOI: 10.1159/000047434
  7. Busscher HJ, Van der Mei HC. Physico-chemical interactions in initial microbial adhesion and relevance for biofilm formation. Adv Dent Res 1997;11(1):24–32. DOI: 10.1177/08959374970110011301
  8. Jenkinson HF, Lamont RJ. Streptococcal adhesion and colonization. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 1997;8(2):175–200. DOI: 10.1177/10454411970080020601
  9. Lamont RJ, Jenkinson HF. Adhesion as an ecological determinant in the oral cavity. Oral Bacterial Ecology: The Molecular Basis. 2000. p. 131–168.
  10. Kolenbrander PE, Andersen RN, Kazmerzak KM, et al. Coaggregation and coadhesion in oral biofilms. In: Symposia-Society for General Microbiology 2000 Jan 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1999. p. 65–86.
  11. Marsh PD, Bradshaw DJ. Microbial community aspects of dental plaque. Dental Plaque Revisited 1999;237–253.
  12. Bradshaw DJ, Marsh PD, Watson GK, et al. Role of Fusobacterium nucleatum and coaggregation in anaerobe survival in planktonic and biofilm oral microbial communities during aeration. Infect Immun 1998;66(10):4729–4732. DOI: 10.1128/IAI.66.10.4729-4732
  13. Allison DG. The biofilm matrix. Biofouling 2003;19(2):139–150. DOI: 10.1080/0892701031000072190
  14. Listgarten MA. Formation of dental plaque and other oral biofilms. Dental plaque revisited: oral biofilms in health and disease. Bioline 1999;187–210.
  15. Marsh PD. The oral microflora and biofilms on teeth. Dental Caries 2003.
  16. Beighton D, Smith K, Hayday H. The growth of bacteria and the production of exoglycosidic enzymes in the dental plaque of macaque monkeys. Arch Oral Biol 1986;31(12):829–835. DOI: 10.1016/0003-9969(86)90137-8
  17. Bradshaw DJ, Homer KA, Marsh PD, et al. Metabolic cooperation in oral microbial communities during growth on mucin. Microbiology 1994;140(12):3407–3412. DOI: 10.1099/13500872-140-12-3407
  18. Marsh PD, Bowden GH. Microbial community interactions in biofilms. In: Symposia-society for General Microbiology 2000 Sep. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1999. p. 167–198.
  19. Cavedon K, London J. Adhesin degradation: a possible function for a Prevotella loescheii protease? Oral Microbiol Immunol 1993;8(5):283–287. DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-302x.1993.tb00575.x
  20. Lee SF, Li YH, Bowden GH. Detachment of Streptococcus mutans biofilm cells by an endogenous enzymatic activity. Infecti Immun 1996;64(3):1035–1038. DOI: 10.1128/iai.64.3.1035-1038.1996
  21. Ramamurthy J, Jayakumar ND. Ocimum sanctum and its effect on oral health—a comprehensive review. Drug Invention Today 2019;11(4): 819–821.
  22. Mathur S, Mathur T, Srivastava R, et al. Chlorhexidine: the gold standard in chemical plaque control. Natl J Physiol Pharm 2011;1(2):45–50.
  23. Joshi B, Sah GP, Basnet BB, et al. Phytochemical extraction and antimicrobial properties of different medicinal plants: Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), Eugenia caryophyllata (Clove), Achyranthes bidentata (Datiwan) and Azadirachta indica (Neem). J Microbiol Antimicrob 2011;3(1):1–7. DOI: 10.5897/JMA.9000046
  24. Eswar P, Devaraj CG, Agarwal P. Anti-microbial activity of Tulsi {Ocimum sanctum (Linn.)} extract on a periodontal pathogen in human dental plaque: an in vitro study. J Clin Diagn Res 2016;10(3):ZC53–ZC56. DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2016/16214.7468
  25. Jayanti I, Jalaluddin M, Avijeeta A, et al. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) extract on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. J Contemp Dent Pract 2018;19(4):415–419. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2276
  26. Prabhakar AR, Krishna Murthy VV, Chandrashekar Y. Ocimum sanctum as an intracanal irrigant in contemporary paediatric endodontics—an in vivo study. Int J Oral Health Med Res 2015;2:6–9.
  27. Mallikarjun S, Rao A, Rajesh G, et al. Antimicrobial efficacy of Tulsi leaf (Ocimum sanctum) extract on periodontal pathogens: an in vitro study. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2016;20(2):145–150. DOI: 10.4103/0972-124X.175177
  28. Mirje MM, Zaman SU, Ramabhimaiah S. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of Ocimum sanctum Linn (Tulsi) in albino rats. Int J Curr Microbio App Sci 2014;3(1):198–205.
  29. Panchal P, Parvez N. Phytochemical analysis of medicinal herb (Ocimum sanctum). Int J Nanomater Nanotechnol Nanomed 2019;5(2):008–11. DOI: 10.17352/2455-3492.000029
  30. Parida A, Siddeeqh S, Jose M, et al. Antimicrobial effects of Ocimum sanctum on oral microbes. Asian J Pharma Clin Res 2018;11(5):316–318. DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2018.v11i5.23623
  31. Hassan SA, Bhateja S, Arora G. Use of tulsi in oral and systemic diseases—a short review. J Paediatr Nurs Sci 2020;2(4):105–107. DOI: 10.18231/j.ijpns.2019.007
  32. Yamani HA, Pang EC, Mantri N, et al. Antimicrobial activity of Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum) essential oil and their major constituents against three species of bacteria. Front Microbiol 2016;7(660):681. DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00681
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.