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VOLUME 13 , ISSUE 6 ( November-December, 2022 ) > List of Articles


Correlation of Forehead Type with Maxillary Incisor Inclination in Dravidian South Indian Population: A Prospective Study

S KK Shantha, Ravindra K Jain

Keywords : Buccolingual inclination, Photographic diagnosis, Smile esthetics

Citation Information : Shantha SK, Jain RK. Correlation of Forehead Type with Maxillary Incisor Inclination in Dravidian South Indian Population: A Prospective Study. World J Dent 2022; 13 (6):606-610.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10015-2090

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 26-08-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


Aim: To correlate maxillary central incisors labiolingual inclination (LI) with forehead inclination (FI) and assess the anteroposterior (AP) position of maxillary central incisor (CI) in Dravidian South Indian population with different forehead types using photographs. Materials and methods: This photograph-based study included 150 class I occlusion participants with good facial harmony equally divided into three groups (group A—angulated, group B—straight, and group C—rounded) based on forehead type. Reference points and lines were marked on the right profile full smile photographs of the participants taken in natural head position with CI and forehead in full view, and FI, II, and AP of CI in all groups were measured and tabulated. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation test, and linear regression analysis were performed. Results: Incisor inclination was highest in group A (4.31 ± 2.50) and lowest in group B (1.01 ± 2.04). Pearson's correlation test revealed a statistically significant correlation between FI and II (p < 0.05). About 61.4% of the population had maxillary CI positioned anterior to forehead facial-axis point (FFA), 25.7% posterior to FFA, and 12.8% at FFA. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed a moderate correlation (r = 0.696) between FI and II that shows inclination of FI can be used to determine the II. Majority of the study population (61.4%) had maxillary CI positioned anterior to FFA, which is considered the most esthetic position of incisors when finishing orthodontic treatment. Clinical significance: Forehead inclination assessed clinically can be used to determine the incisor inclination.

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