Aim: The present study compares the quantitative analysis of the red-complex bacteria (RCB) in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy with and without plaque-induced gingival enlargement.
Materials and methods: Forty subjects undergoing orthodontic therapy were categorized into two groups: control group: 18 periodontally healthy subjects without plaque-induced gingival enlargement undergoing orthodontic treatment and study group: 22 subjects with plaque-induced gingival enlargement undergoing orthodontic treatment. Plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP %), simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S), and probing pocket depth (PPD) were recorded. The type and frequency of tooth brushing were also assessed. Plaque samples were collected from the periodontal pockets and analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of Treponema denticola (T.d), Tannerella forsythia (T.f), and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g), and statistical analysis was performed.
Results: PPD, PI, OHI-S, BOP, type, and frequency of tooth brushing were higher in patients with plaque-induced gingival enlargement as compared to the controls. A significant increase in the levels of T.d, T.f, and P.g was found in both the groups, however it showed a statistical insignificance difference. Overall T.d was found to be more prevalent than T.f and P.g in both the groups. On correlating the RCB with the other variables. A positive correlation was seen with T.d and the oral hygiene index scores in the controls and the presence of T.d, T.f, and P.g with BOP and PPD in the study group.
Conclusion: The expressions of RCB levels in the dental plaque of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with and without the inflammatory enlargement were more or less the same however, T.d was found at higher levels than the other bacteria.
Clinical significance: The study shows the association of the BOP and PPD and the presence of RCB in orthodontic patients with inflammatory enlargement putting these patients at a higher risk for periodontal attachment loss.
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