Prevalence and Risk Factors of Oral Cancer Among Saudi Women: A Systematic Review
Hussain Almubarak, Wafa M Alqahtani, Shaik M Shamsudeen, Shaik M Asif, Jagadish Hosmani, Usha Balan, Suraj Arora, Imran Khalid
Alcohol, Oral cancer, Saudi Arabia, Smokeless tobacco, Tobacco, Women
Citation Information :
Almubarak H, Alqahtani WM, Shamsudeen SM, Asif SM, Hosmani J, Balan U, Arora S, Khalid I. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Oral Cancer Among Saudi Women: A Systematic Review. World J Dent 2022; 13 (3):289-293.
Background: Incidence of oral cancer among women has been increasing globally. Consumption of tobacco and alcohol are predominant cause while other factors such as genetics, dietary habits, nature of occupation, and oral hygiene barely determine prevalence of oral cancer among women. Aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review to assess the prevalence and the risk factors of oral cancer among women of Saudi Arabia.
Methods: Search was done with combination of keywords in Google database using English language from 1990 till August 2020 with inclusion criteria includes original research, reviews, and studies focused on the prevalence and risk factors of oral cancer among Saudi Women. Case reports, investigative methods, treatment modalities for oral cancer, and articles that focused on other type of cancers were excluded from the study.
Results: Out of 2,373 articles obtained, nine articles were under final selection after removing duplicates, irrelevant articles for the current topics and after application of inclusion and exclusion criteria.These articles reviewed to identify useful insights about oral cancer among women with special focus on Saudi Arabia.
Conclusion: Observed geographical differentials of oral cancer subject to the development indexes of countries indicate that incidence rate of oral cancer among Saudi women is relatively lower compared to other regions, due to less exposure to cancer-causing risks. Tobacco consumptions particularly smokeless tobacco (Shammah) is the dominant cause among Saudi women, followed by genetic factors. However, a continuous vigilance for oral cancer among women in Saudi Arabia is critically needed for reducing common risks factors of the disease.
Zavras AI, Shanmugam P, Shetty D, et al. Oral and pharyngeal cancer in women. Dent Clin North Am 2013;57(2):339–355. DOI: 10.1016/j.cden.2013.02.001
Bray F, Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, et al. Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA Cancer J Clin 2018;68(6):394–424. DOI: 10.3322/caac.21492
Al-Jaber A, Al-Nasser L, El-Metwally A. Epidemiology of oral cancer in Arab countries. Saudi Med J 2016;37(3):249–255. DOI: 10.15537/smj.2016.3.11388
Tandon P, Pathak VP, Zaheer A, et al. Cancer in the Jazan province of Saudi Arabia: an eleven year study. Ann Saudi Med 1995;15(1):14–20. DOI: 10.5144/0256-4947.1995.14
Latest Global Cancer Data: Cancer burden rises to 18.1 million new cases and 9.6 million cancer deaths. International Agency for Research on Cancer 2018; 263:1–3.
Torre LA, Farhad I, Rebecca L,et al. Global cancer in women: burden and trends. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2014;26(4):444–457. DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-16-0858
Kruse AL, Marius B, Klaus WG. Oral cancer in men and women: are there differences? Oral Maxillofac Surg 2010;15(1):51–55. DOI: 10.1007/s10006-010-0253-6
Suba Z. Gender-related hormonal risk factors for oral cancer. Pathol Oncol Res 2007;13(3):195–202. DOI: 10.1007/BF02893499
Patravoot V, Krittika S, Supot K, et al. Epidemiology of oral and pharyngeal cancers in Khon Kaen, Thailand: a high incidence in females. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2011;12(10):2504–2508.
Warnakulasuriya S. Global epidemiology of oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Oral Oncol 2009;45(4-5):309–316. DOI: 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2008.06.002
Turati F, Garavello W, Tramacere I, et al. A meta-analysis of alcohol drinking and oral and pharyngeal cancers. Part 2: results bysubsites. Oral Oncol 2010;4(10):720–726. DOI: 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2010.07.010
Zavras A, Douglass C, Joshipura K, et al. Smoking and alcohol in the etiology of oral cancer: gender-specific risk profiles in the south of Greece. Oral Oncol 2001;37(1):28–35 DOI: 10.1016/s1368-8375(00)00060-9
Alsanosy RM. Smokeless tobacco (Shammah) in Saudi Arabia: a review of its pattern in use, prevalence and potential role in oral cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2014;15(16):6477–6483. DOI: 10.7314/apjcp.2014.15.16.6477
Basha S, Roshan NM, Yousef Al-Thomali, et al. The prevalence of oral cancer in Saudi Arabia: a systematic review. Ann Med Health Sci Res 2019;9(2):553–557.
Shanmugham JR, Athanasios IZ, Bernard AR, et al. Alcohol-folate interactions in the risk of oral cancer in women: a prospective cohort study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2010;19(10):2516–2524. DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0499
Brown A, Ravichandran K, Warnakulasuriya S. The unequal burden related to the risk of oral cancer in the different regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Community Dent Health 2006;23(2):101–106.
Allard WF, DeVol EB, Te OB. Smokeless tobacco (Shammah) and oral cancer in Saudi Arabia. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1999;27():398–405. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.1999.tb02038.x
Abdelbaset ME, Ahmed HG. A review on the etiology of oral cancer in Saudi Arabia. Int J Med Res Health Sci 2018;7(6):161–170.
Radhakrishnan R, Shamaprasad K, Kapaettu S. DNA hypermethylation as an epigenetic mark for oral cancer diagnosis. J Oral Pathol Med 2011;40(9):665–676. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0714.2011.01055.x
Rodríguez-Paredes M, Esteller M. Cancer epigenetics reaches mainstream oncology. Nat Med 2011;17:330. DOI: 10.1038/nm.2305
Wang L, GanlyI. The oral microbiome and oral cancer. Clin Lab Med 2014;34(4):711–719. DOI: 10.1016/j.cll.2014.08.004
Sritippho T, Pareena C, Anak I. Roles of human papilloma viruses and p16 in oral cancer Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2015;16(15):6193–6200. DOI: 10.7314/apjcp.2015.16.15.6193
Guidry JT, Birdwell CE, Scott RS. Epstein-Barr virus in the pathogenesis of oral cancers. Oral Dis 2018; 24(4):497–508. DOI: 10.1111/odi.12656
Quadri MF, Alharbi F, Bajonaid AM, et al. Oral squamous cell carcinoma and associated risk factors in Jazan, Saudi Arabia: a hospital based case control study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2015;16(10):4335–4338. DOI: 10.7314/apjcp.2015.16.10.4335
Chang JS, Lo HI, Wong TY et al. Investigating the association between oral hygiene and head and neck cancer. Oral Oncol 2013;49(10):1010–1017. DOI: 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2013.07.004
Kheur SM, Kheur M, Gupta AA. Oral prophylaxis as an adjunct procedure towards prevention and management of oral cancer: rationale and application. Oral Oncol 2014;50(8):e44–e45. DOI: 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2014.05.001
Alshehri BM. Trends in the incidence of oral cancer in Saudi Arabia from 1994 to 2015. World J Surg Oncol 2020;18(1):217. DOI: 10.1186/s12957-020-01989-3
Chen F, He B-C, Yan L-J, et al. Influence of oral hygiene and its interaction with standard of education on the risk of oral cancer in women who neither smoked nor drank alcohol: a hospital–based, case–control study. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017;55(3):260–265. DOI: 10.1016/j.bjoms.2016.11.316