Aim and objective: To critically evaluate the displacement of orthodontic mini-implants (MIs) under orthodontic force loading.
Materials and methods: This trial has been registered to PROSPERO and the registration number is CRD42020150084. An electronic search was done and two independent authors (SS and AKS) screened the initial titles and abstracts to find all the eligible studies in PubMed, Cochrane library, Google Scholar Beta, LILACS from 1950 until June 26, 2020, using the terms orthodontic treatment, temporary anchorage devices, loading behavior, reactive force, stability, primary displacement, migration, dislodgement, loss of anchorage drift, primary stability, loosening, drift characteristics, movement, deflections, biomechanical effect, and randomized controlled trial. The assessment of articles was done using selection criteria. According to the PICOS (population, intervention, comparison, outcome, study design) criteria, the inclusion criteria were worked out. This review took into consideration only randomized and non-randomized trials, and prospective clinical studies were included. We used standard methodological procedures for selecting studies, collecting data. The risk of bias was evaluated and findings were synthesized.
Results: Of the 28 initial records identified, a total of 12 studies were included in this review. One study had a poor risk of bias and the remaining 11 studies had moderate to good overall risk. Of the parameters evaluated for displacement, mobility, root approximation of the MIs, the results showed that there was a displacement of MIs but clinically not often relevant to cause failure or complication in treatment.
Conclusion: From this review, it can be concluded that there is a displacement of the MI under orthodontic force loading. The primary displacement of the MIs did not appear to be clinically relevant to failure and mobility.
Clinical significance: There is a primary displacement that occurs during the loading of MIs and even in some cases secondary displacement. The position and direction of insertion of the MIs should be planned to keep in mind the migration in such a way that it does not interfere with the orthodontic tooth movement and vital structures.
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