Aim: To highlight the important contribution of Sushruta in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgeries. Background: Sushruta is well recognized for his innovative methods in plastic surgery. Not much is written on his contribution in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery and his contribution remains unrecognized. Review results: Reference and passage in relation to oral and maxillofacial surgeries were identified by browsing “An English translation of the Sushruta Samhita” (Vol I, II, III) by Kaviraj Kunjala Bhishagratna and available literature from peer-reviewed indexed journals. An oral and maxillofacial surgical procedure like extraction of teeth, surgical extraction of wisdom teeth, fracture of jaws and nasal bone, dislocation of the mandible, use of wires to stabilize loose teeth and fractured jaws; rhinoplasty, otoplasty, cleft lip, and description of instruments like extraction forceps, suture needle, and materials has been described by Sushruta in his book Sushruta Samhita. Conclusion: The contribution of Sushruta in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery hardly got due recognition, which it deserved. Clinical significance: The pioneering descriptions of oral diseases, the principles of oral and maxillofacial surgery in the Samhita remain valid in our contemporary understanding. He was the first surgeon who emphasized cadaver dissection for medical education, sterilization and asepsis procedures for surgery, use of wine as an anesthetic to reduce pain during the surgery, and also practical training for tooth extractions.
Raju VK. Sushruta of ancient India. Indian J Ophthalmol 2003;51:119–122.
Tewari M, Shukla HS. Sushruta: the father of Indian surgery. Indian J Surg 2005;67:229–230.
Bhishagratna KL. An English Tranlation of The Sushruta Samhita, Sutrasthanam. vol. I, Calcutta: Kaviraj Kunjalal Bhishagratna; 1907.
Bhishagratna KL. An English Translation of The Sushruta Samhita, Nidana-Sthana, Sarira-Sthana, Chikitsita-Sthana and Kalapa-Sthana. vol. II, Calcutta: Kaviraj Kunjalal Bhishagratna; 1911.
Bhishagratna KL. An English Translation of the Sushruta Samhita, Uttara tantra. vol. III, Calcutta: S. L. BHADURI; 1916.
Shah S. Ophthalmology in ancient time – the Sushruta Samhita. J Clin Ophthalmol Res 2018;6(3):117–120. DOI: 10.4103/jcor.jcor_15_17.
Champaneria MC, Workman AD, Gupta SC. Sushruta: father of plastic surgery. Ann Plast Surg 2014;73(1):2–7. DOI: 10.1097/SAP.0b013e31827ae9f5.
Bhattacharya S. Sushrutha - our proud heritage. Indian J Plast Surg 2009;42(2):223–225. DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1699348.
Singh V. Sushruta: the father of surgery. Natl J Maxillofac Surg 2017;8(1):1–3. DOI: 10.4103/njms.NJMS_33_17.
Aziz SR. A history of the treatment of jaw fractures. J Mass Dent Soc 1993;42:200–203.
Mukhopadhyaya G. The surgical instruments of the Hindus, with a comparative Study of the surgical instruments of Greek, Roman, Arab and The modern European surgeons. Calcutta: Calcutta University Press; 1913.
Deepa B, Pushpalata M. Contributions of sushruta to anatomy. Anatomy J Afr 2014;3(2):362–365.
Singhal GD, Guru LV. Anatomical & Obstetric Considerations in Ancient Indian Surgery. Banaras: Banaras Hindu University Press; 1973.
Saraf S, Parihar R. Sushruta: The First Plastic Surgeon in 600 BC The Internet Journal of Plastic Surgery 2006;4(2):1–7.
Singh LM, Thakral KK, Deshpande PJ. Susruta's contributions to the fundamentals of surgery. IJHS 1970;5(1):36–50.
Mukhopadhaya G. History of Indian Medicine. Calcutta: Calcutta University Press; 1929. pp. 32–33.
Bhishagratna KL. An English translation of the Sushruta Samhita. Varanasi: Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office; 1963.
Borle RM. Text Book of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publisher; 2014.
Jeevan L, Nitin V, Palvi G. Chronic protracted temporomandibular joint dislocation: a report of two cases along with systematic literature review. J Head Neck Phys Surg 2014;2(1):53–66.
Champaneria MC, Workman AD, Gupta SC. Sushruta: father of plastic surgery. Int J Sci Res 2016;5(3):663–668.
Kumar A, Kumar BN. The principles of surgical practice: sushruta samhita and its importance to present day surgery. J Surg Open Access 2020;6(2):1–2.
Bath K, Aggarwal S, Sharma V. Sushruta: Father of plastic surgery in Benares. J Med Biogr 2019; 27(1):2–3. DOI: 10.1177/0967772016643463.
Loukas M, Lanteri A, Ferrauiola J, et al. Anatomy in ancient India: a focus on the Susruta Samhita. J Anat 2010;217(6):646–650. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01294.x.
Puthumana PP. Through the mists of time: sushrutha, an enigma revisited. Indian J Plast Surg 2009;42(2):219–223. DOI: 10.4103/0970-0358.59285.
Kansupada KB, Sassani JW. Sushruta: the father of Indian surgery and ophthalmology. Doc Ophthalmol 1997;93(1-2):159–167. DOI: 10.1007/BF02569056.